The city became the first South American city to host the event and the second Latin American city (after Mexico City in 1968) to host the Games. Joaquim Manuel de Macedo's A Moreninha (1844) was perhaps the first successful novel in Brazil and inaugurates a recurrent 19th-century theme: a romantic relationship between idealistic young people in spite of cruelties of social fortune. The official song of Rio is "Cidade Maravilhosa", by composer André Filho. Eventually this French settlement became too much of a threat to the established Portuguese colony and in 1560 the order was made to get rid of them. [108], Rio de Janeiro has the second largest GDP of any city in Brazil, surpassed only by São Paulo. Rio de Janeiro, the second largest city in Brazil, is often called Cidade Maravilhosa, the Marvelous City. A city of southeast Brazil on Guanabara Bay, an arm of the Atlantic Ocean. The most famous author of Rio de Janeiro, however, was Machado de Assis, who is also widely regarded as the greatest writer of Brazilian literature[146] and considered the founder of Realism in Brazil, with the publication of The Posthumous Memoirs of Bras Cubas (1881). From the terrace there is a panoramic view of the zone. From Salvador: BR-101 or BR-324/BR-116/BR-393/BR-040. The highest accumulated rainfall in 24 hours, 186.2 mm (7.3 in), was recorded at the Santa Teresa station in April 1967. The 2011 Military World Games were the largest military sports event ever held in Brazil, with approximately 4,900 athletes from 108 countries competing in 20 sports.[166]. [167] Rio de Janeiro has also a multi-purpose arena, the HSBC Arena. The city has a history as host of major international sports events. Lobão emerged as the most legendary rocker in Brazil. The average amount of time people wait at a stop or station for public transit is 19 min, while 35% of riders wait for over 20 minutes on average every day. Sansone, Livio. [110], Greater Rio de Janeiro, as perceived by the IBGE, has a GDP of US$187 billion, constituting the second largest hub of national wealth. Rio de Janeiro's Theatro Municipal is one of the most attractive buildings in the central area of the city. While samba music continues to act as the national unifying agent in Rio, Funk Carioca found a strong community following in Brazil. [23], When Prince Pedro proclaimed the independence of Brazil in 1822, he decided to keep Rio de Janeiro as the capital of his new empire while the place was enriched with sugar cane agriculture in the Campos region and, especially, with the new coffee cultivation in the Paraíba Valley. No one dances more exquisitely or parties longer than the cariocas (residents of Rio). In 2004, the Port of Rio de Janeiro handled over seven million tons of cargo on almost 1700 vessels. Their main playgrounds are the beaches of Copacabana and Ipanema, names t… The first notable work of realism focusing on the urban lower-middle class is Manuel Antônio de Almeida's Memórias de um sargento de milícias (1854), which presents a series of picaresque but touching scenes, and evokes the transformation of a town into a city with suggestive nostalgia. In early May 2013, winds registering above 90 km/h (56 mph) caused blackouts in 15 neighborhoods of the city and three surrounding municipalities, and killed one person. Duration: Flexible The city has six major universities and 47 private schools of higher learning. People celebrate the New Year by sharing chilled champagne. As part of its preparations to host the 2007 Pan American Games, Rio built a new stadium, Estádio Olímpico João Havelange, to hold 45,000 people. On the top of its summit is a huge rock formation (some, such as Erich von Däniken in his 1973 book, In Search of Ancient Gods, claim it to be a sculpture) resembling a sphinx-like, bearded head that is visible for many kilometres around. It was satirized by the novelist Jorge Amado in Pen, Sword, Camisole. Rio de Janeiro. Also located in the center is the traditional neighbourhood called Lapa, an important bohemian area frequented by both townspeople and tourists. Events calendar, tourist information, where to stay and where to eat in Rio de Janeiro. However, during the Olympics the lagoon hosted the rowing competitions and there were numerous concerns about potential infection resulting from human sewage.[43]. Among its several museums, the Museu Nacional de Belas Artes (National Museum of Fine Arts) and the Museu Histórico Nacional (National Historical Museum) are the most important. Residents of the city are known as cariocas. It is the fifth best in Latin America; the second best in Brazil, second only to the University of São Paulo; and the best in Latin America, according to the QS World University Rankings. The quality of the highways improved much, but was accompanied by a significant increase of the toll fees. [55] The average annual minimum temperature is 21 °C (70 °F),[56] the average annual maximum temperature is 27 °C (81 °F),[57] and the average annual temperature is 24 °C (75 °F). Those games were awarded to Athens and London respectively.[165]. Madureira, Bangu, Portuguesa, America and Bonsucesso are small clubs. The largest urban forest in the world is the Floresta da Pedra Branca (White Rock Forest), which is located in the West Zone of Rio de Janeiro. Other districts in the South Zone are Glória, Catete, Flamengo, Botafogo, and Urca, which border Guanabara Bay, and Santa Teresa, Cosme Velho, Laranjeiras, Humaitá, Lagoa, Jardim Botânico, and Gávea. The humble açai berry has been pushed into the spotlight with its superfood status and incredible health properties. The port is managed by Companhia Docas de Rio de Janeiro. [14] Allegedly the Florentine explorer Amerigo Vespucci participated as observer at the invitation of King Manuel I in the same [120] The top three goods exported by the municipality were crude petroleum (40%), semi finished iron product (16%), and semi finished steel products (11%). The neighbourhood of Copacabana beach hosts one of the world's most spectacular New Year's Eve parties ("Reveillon"), as more than two million revelers crowd onto the sands to watch the fireworks display. Facing largely south, the city was founded on an inlet of this stretch of the coast, Guanabara Bay (Baía de Guanabara), and its entrance is marked by a point of land called Sugar Loaf (Pão de Açúcar) – a "calling card" of the city. Many of the most important retail stores are located in the centre, but others are scattered throughout the commercial areas of the other districts, where shopping centres, supermarkets, and other retail businesses handle a large volume of consumer trade. The Pedra Branca State Park (Parque Estadual da Pedra Branca)[76] is the biggest urban state park in the world comprising 17 neighborhoods in the west side, being a "giant lung" in the city with trails,[77] waterfalls and historic constructions like an old aqueduct in the Colônia Juliano Moreira[78] in the neighborhood of Taquara and a dam in Camorim. The city was chosen as headquarters for state-owned companies such as Petrobras, Eletrobras, Caixa Econômica Federal, National Economic and Social Development Bank and Vale (which was privatized in the 1990s). People can also buy tickets for the Metro at buses that make connect places far from the Metro. It receives the most visitors per year of any city in South America with 2.82 million international tourists a year. These mountains and hills are offshoots of the Serra do Mar to the northwest, the ancient gneiss-granite mountain chain that forms the southern slopes of the Brazilian Highlands. These people, mostly descendants of slaves, then moved to live in the city's hills, creating the first favelas. Morrison, Allen (November 2010; later updates). [46][47][48], Drought is very rare, albeit bound to happen occasionally given the city's strongly seasonal tropical climate. [152], "Rio was popularised by the hit song "The Girl from Ipanema", composed by Antônio Carlos Jobim and Vinicius de Moraes and recorded by Astrud Gilberto and João Gilberto, Frank Sinatra, and Ella Fitzgerald. Rio is home to many colleges and universities. The Port of Rio de Janeiro contains almost seven thousand metres (23 thousand feet) of continuous wharf and an 883-metre (2,897-foot) pier. A years long military aggression was then initiated by the new Governor General of Brazil Mem De Sa, and later continued by his nephew Estacio De Sa. Between 1961 and 1990, at the INMET (Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology) conventional station in the neighborhood of Saúde, the lowest temperature recorded was 10.1 °C (50.2 °F) in October 1977,[64] and the highest temperature recorded was 39 °C (102.2 °F) in December 1963. The Rio de Janeiro Stock Exchange (BVRJ), which currently trades only government securities, was the first stock exchange founded in Brazil in 1845. Últimas notícias da cidade do Rio de Janeiro, Baixada Fluminense e de todo o estado. The most valuable collections in the library include: 4,300 items donated by Barbosa Machado including a precious collection of rare brochures detailing the History of Portugal and Brazil; 2,365 items from the 17th and 18th centuries that were previously owned by Antônio de Araújo de Azevedo, the "Count of Barca", including the 125-volume set of prints "Le Grand Théâtre de l'Univers;" a collection of documents regarding the Jesuítica Province of Paraguay and the "Region of Prata;" and the Teresa Cristina Maria Collection, donated by Emperor Pedro II. Future plans include building a fourth subway line to Niterói and São Gonçalo, including an underwater tunnel beneath Guanabara Bay to supplement the ferry service currently there. There are also international schools, such as the American School of Rio de Janeiro, Our Lady of Mercy School, SIS Swiss International School, the Corcovado German School, the Lycée Français and the British School of Rio de Janeiro. Besides Maracanã, the North Zone of Rio also has other tourist and historical attractions, such "Nossa Senhora da Penha de França Church", the Christ the Redeemer (statue) with its stairway built into the rock bed, 'Manguinhos', the home of Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, a centenarian biomedical research institution with a main building fashioned like a Moorish palace, and the Quinta da Boa Vista, the park where the historic Imperial Palace is located. Cidade das Artes (City of Arts) is a cultural complex in Barra da Tijuca in the Southwest Zone of Rio de Janeiro, which was originally planned to open in 2004. Famous players born in the city include Ronaldo and Romário. Industrial enterprises are being built in lower and lower middle class residential Santa Cruz, one of the largest and most populous of Rio de Janeiro's neighbourhoods, most notably Ternium Brasil, a new steel mill with its own private docks on Sepetiba Bay, which is planned to be South America's largest steel works. [24], Donohoe was horrified to discover that there was absolutely no knowledge of football among Brazilians. [54] Rio saw similarly high winds (about 100 km/h (62 mph)) in January 2015. [99], Rio de Janeiro has had a rich and influential Catholic tradition. The city remained primarily a colonial capital until 1808, when the Portuguese royal family and most of the associated Lisbon nobles, fleeing from Napoleon's invasion of Portugal, moved to Rio de Janeiro. The literacy rate for cariocas aged 10 and older is nearly 95 percent, well above the national average. Per capita GDP is US$11,786. Horse racing events are held Thursday nights and weekend afternoons at Hipódromo da Gávea. As years passed, adorned floats and costumed revelers became a tradition among the celebrants. Rio de Janeiro (IPA: [ˈʁi.u d(ʒi) ʒɐˈne(j)ɾu] kiejtése; jelentése: januári folyó) Brazília második legnagyobb városa, az azonos nevű, Rio de Janeiro állam fővárosa. The International Airport of Rio de Janeiro (Galeão – Antônio Carlos Jobim International Airport, named after the famous Brazilian musician Antônio Carlos Jobim), the main campus of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro at the Fundão Island, and the State University of Rio de Janeiro, in Maracanã, are also located in the Northern part of Rio. This is an elite area of the West Zone of the city of Rio de Janeiro. [161], As in the rest of Brazil, association football is the most popular sport. Online casinos have been very popular since they started off in the late 90s. [58] The average yearly precipitation is 1,069 mm (42.1 in). The main waves of internal migration came from people of African, mixed or older Portuguese (as descendants of early settlers) descent from Minas Gerais and people of Eastern European, Swiss, Italian, German, Portuguese and older Portuguese-Brazilian heritage from Espírito Santo in the early and mid-20th century, together with people with origins in Northeastern Brazil, in the mid-to-late and late 20th century, as well some in the early 21st century (the latter more directed to peripheries than the city's core). As with many of Rio de Janeiro's cultural monuments, the library was originally off-limits to the general public. Rio de Janeiro, estado (state) of southeastern Brazil, bounded by the states of Espírito Santo (north), Minas Gerais (west), and São Paulo (southwest), while to the east lies the Atlantic Ocean. After the 1964 coup d'état that installed a military dictatorship, the city-state was the only state left in Brazil to oppose the military. The largest Art Deco statue in the world, Christ the Redeemer, beckons visitors to Corcovado Mountain. [20], From the colonial period until the first independent era, Rio de Janeiro was a city of slaves. Acesse O Globo! Rio's public transportation service has been a target of many critics and the motive of the 2013's protests and manifestations that started in São Paulo and spread through the entire country. Those who joined the French were then exterminated by the Portuguese, while the other part was assimilated.[84]. Carnaval is known as a historic root of Brazilian music. Europeans first encountered Guanabara Bay on 1 January 1502 (hence Rio de Janeiro, "January River"), by a Portuguese expedition under explorer Gaspar de Lemos, captain of a ship in Pedro Álvares Cabral's fleet, or under Gonçalo Coelho. Rio de Janeiro, in full Cidade de São Sebastião do Rio de Janeiro, byname Rio, city and port, capital of the estado (state) of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.It is located on the Atlantic Ocean, in the southeastern part of the tropical zone of South America, and is widely recognized as one of the world’s most beautiful and interesting urban centres.. With its plentiful beaches, dramatic mountains, and backdrop of samba and bossa nova rhythms, it's easy to fall in love with Rio de Janeiro. The first line runs from General Osório in Ipanema to Uruguai Station in Tijuca. The mountainous areas register greater rainfall since they constitute a barrier to the humid wind that comes from the Atlantic. The mutineers took control of the battleship Minas Geraes and threatened to fire on the city. A part of them joined the Portuguese and the other the French. Rio de Janeiro hosted the 2016 Olympics and Paralympics. Every 31 December, 2.5 million people gather at Copacabana Beach to celebrate New Year's in Rio de Janeiro. "The Localization of Global Funk in Bahia and Rio." The song is considered the civic anthem of Rio, and is always the favourite song during Rio's Carnival in February. [131], The Portuguese language is the official and national language, and thus the primary language taught in schools. Part of the city has been designated as a World Heritage Site, named "Rio de Janeiro: Carioca Landscapes between the Mountain and the Sea", by UNESCO on 1 July 2012 as a Cultural Landscape. The old farms became worker villages with red-bricks houses, and a neo-gothic church was created, which still exists as the Saint Sebastian and Saint Cecilia Parish Church. The Olympic Games were held from 5 to 21 August 2016. Brazilians with at least one Portuguese parent, Portuguese immigrants and their descendants, Rio de Janeiro appears in the driving game, Rio de Janeiro was featured in the racing game, Rio de Janeiro appears as a playable map in, Rio de Janeiro appears as a track in the arcade-exclusive racing game, This page was last edited on 4 April 2021, at 12:03. [86] The Portuguese cultural influence is still seen in many parts of the city (and many other parts of the state of Rio de Janeiro), including architecture and language. In 1950, the Maracanã Stadium hosted 8 matches, including all but one of the host team's matches. Rio stayed the capital of the pluricontinental Lusitanian monarchy until 1822, when the War of Brazilian Independence began. Brazil ended up losing 2–1 in front of a home crowd of more than 199,000. Its installations have a collection of great historical and religious value: the Archdiocesan Museum of Sacred Art and the Archdiocesan Archive. In Brazilian Popular Music & Globalization, 135–60. [79] A tunnel called Túnel da Grota Funda, opened in 2012, creating a public transit facility between Barra da Tijuca and Santa Cruz, lessening travel time to the region from other areas of Rio de Janeiro.[80]. Westwards from the older zones of Rio, Barra da Tijuca is a flat complex of barrier islands of formerly undeveloped coastal land, which constantly experiences new constructions and developments. Source: Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology (INMET). Squeezed by the Atlantic Ocean and the verdant hills of Brazil, Rio's dramatic natural setting has impressed visitors for decades. The per capita income for the city was R$22,903 in 2007 (around US$14,630). Today, nearly half of the city's population is by phenotype perceptibly black or part black. Rio de Janeiro is also paradise for rock climbers, with hundreds of routes all over the city, ranging from easy boulders to highly technical big wall climbs, all inside the city. It has 8 lines and 270 kilometres (168 mi), with 102 stations. Rio de Janeiro, or Rio, is the capital of the State of Rio de Janeiro and the second-largest … Including all of the Rio de Janeiro, the proportion raised to 46.3% of the Portuguese who lived in Brazil. Search for Rio de Janeiro luxury homes with the Sotheby’s International Realty network, your premier resource for Rio de Janeiro homes. In the late 19th century, there were sessions held of the first Brazilian film and since then, several production cycles have spread out, eventually placing Rio at the forefront of experimental and national cinema. Taking into consideration the network of influence exerted by the urban metropolis (which covers 11.3% of the population), this share in GDP rises to 14.4%, according to a study released in October 2008 by the IBGE. Nowadays, the palace hosts the National Museum, specialising in Natural History, Archaeology, and Ethnology. The city's centre of gravity began to shift south and west to the so-called Zona Sul (South Zone) in the early part of the 20th century, when the first tunnel was built under the mountains between Botafogo and the neighbourhood that is now known as Copacabana. It is the wealthiest part of the city and the best known overseas; the neighborhoods of Leblon and Ipanema, in particular, have the most expensive real estate in all of South America. After a derailment occurred on 27 August 2011,[191] which left six dead, tram service was suspended to improve the system. Until the early years of the 20th century, the city was largely limited to the neighbourhood now known as the historic city centre (see below), on the mouth of Guanabara Bay. Most Brazilians with some cultural contact with Rio know how to easily differentiate between the local dialect, fluminense, and other Brazilian dialects. The bike sharing system has 600 bicycles available at 60 rental stations in 14 neighborhoods throughout the city. Location: Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. While the city had in past had a thriving tourism sector, the industry entered a decline in the last quarter of the 20th century. The most famous, Rio's granite mountain, the Sugar Loaf (Pão de Açúcar), is an example, with routes from the easy third grade (American 5.4, French 3) to the extremely difficult ninth grade (5.13/8b), up to 280 metres (919 feet). Another sport that is highly popular in beaches of Rio is called "Frescobol" (pronounced [fɾe̞ɕko̞ˈbɔw]), a type of beach tennis. [162], Rio de Janeiro was one of the host cities of the 1950 and 2014 FIFA World Cups, for which on both occasions Brazil was the host nation. [99][103], There are significant disparities between the rich and the poor in Rio de Janeiro, and different socioeconomic groups are largely segregated into different neighborhoods. The state, which has 8.2% of the Brazilian population, is responsible for 9.2% of the Brazilian GDP. There are also a small number of schools under federal administration, as is the case of Pedro II School, Colégio de Aplicação da UFRJ and the Centro Federal de Educação Tecnológica of Rio de Janeiro (CEFET-RJ). Rio is an important financial centre, second only to São Paulo in volume of business. [104] Although the city clearly ranks among the world's major metropolises, large numbers live in slums known as favelas, where 95% of the population are poor, compared to 40% in the general population.[105]. Another military revolt occurred in 1922, the 18 of the Copacabana Fort revolt, a march against the Old Republic's coronelism and café com leite politics. Rio de Janeiro is second only to Cuiabá as the hottest Brazilian state capital outside Northern and Northeastern Brazil; temperatures below 14 °C (57 °F) occur yearly, while those lower than 11 °C (52 °F) happen less often.

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