The tundra at Barrow is considered coastal tundra located in the most northern region of North Slope and is characterized by various microtopographic features such as polygons, as well as many ponds and lakes. The Tundra Biome aquatic site (Fig. Monthly temperature, precipitation and hours of sunshine. Latitude (decimal degrees). Webber, P. J. and D. C. Ebert. If data were not collected using the relevé method, specify collection method and source. Temporal Resolution: Each plot was sampled once in 1972, 1999, 2008, and 2010. Mission. The Alaska North Slope is the region of the U.S. state of Alaska located on the northern slope of the Brooks Range along the coast of two marginal seas of the Arctic Ocean, the Chukchi Sea being on the western side of Point Barrow, and the Beaufort Sea on the eastern. Aspect is measured counterclockwise in degrees from 0 (due north) to 360 (again due north, coming full circle). Webber also provided insight on the quality of these and other datasets collected using his plant community sampling method at the Alaska AVA Boulder Workshop (Webber 2014). Necessary for judgements on ‘edge effects’. Turboveg data dictionary: http://geobotanical.portal.gina.alaska.edu/plot-archive/turboveg-table. The method consists of recording the composition of vegetation in plots each of which is a linear, contiguous arrangement of ten 1 x 1m quadrats placed in a visually homogeneous patch. Includes land cover, topographic position, slope, aspect, shape, soil moisture, and soil data. The nature and appropriateness, to the Arctic Vegetation Archive (AVA), of data sets gathered using the Webber plant community sampling method. 22. This field is necessary as raw environmental data is often not included in the main publication. Column headings include the plot identifiers. square (S), rectangle (R), linear/band-forming (L), circular (O), irregular (I), more subplots combined (C), unknown (not-recorded) (N). That equals 1,167 kilometers or 630 nautical miles. This is due to the extreme heat. Annual precipitation levels can reach 20 inches.  There are also burial mounds in the area, at the nearby Birnirk Site, associated with the earlier Birnirk culture, a pre-Thule culture first identified in 1912 by Vilhjalmur Stefansson while excavating in the area. Original plant community name used by the author. Akureyri, Iceland. The mean average temperature vary according to location, with temperatures of -12° C (10° F) in Point Barrow, Alaska located at (71.3 ° N) to -28° C (-18° F) at the Northern region of Greenland (71° N). Region as indicated by author. Table 1. On the flip side, the northerly U.S. city called Point Barrow, experiences annual precipitation levels of 4.3 inches. Original data from 1972 were classified and community descriptions were published as a report (Webber & Ebert 1973) and as a component of two IBP books (Brown et al. Seedless vascular plant (ferns, horsetails, club mosses) cover (%). Relevé location as indicated by the author. Temperature for the warmest months in the arctic tundra ranges from 3-12° C (37- 57° F). Archive Center ANPP, BNPP, and TNPP values reported in ORNL data sets. Each plot was a minimum of 10 m2. Point Barrow is an important geographical landmark, mark… 1) Taking photographs of the general site. Climate change in the Arctic and Boreal region is unfolding faster than anywhere else on Earth. That equals 1,167 kilometersor 630 nautical miles. In Vegetation and Production Ecology of … Positive longitudes are east of Prime Meridian, negative longitudes are west of the Prime Meridian. Tweedie, C. E.2013. Also known as Barrow, Utqiaġvik is the northern most settlement in US Alaska. 1980). Puffins belong to the Alcid family, a group of diving birds that swim underwater using their wings for propulsion and their feet for steering. Original data from 1972 were classified and community descriptions were published as a report (Webber & Ebert 1973) and as a component of IBP books (Brown et al. The field is left blank to indicate the plot had no boundaries or no estimate of the sampled area. You’ll also get to see the site of the old village of Nuvuk, which was occupied 1,000 years before the arrival of the first Europeans and is now an important archaeological site. 1972. Figure 3. Arctic Vegetation Plots for IBP Tundra Biome, Barrow, Alaska, 1972-2010. The waters off Point Barrow are on the bowhead whale migration route and it is surmised that the site was chosen to make hunting easier. 1980, Webber 1978, Webber et al.
Below-ground NPP was estimated from below-ground biomass (Webber, 1978) and from longevity of below-ground plant parts (Shaver and Billings, 1975; Billings et al., 1978). Note that functional type percent covers for 2010 were calculated from species cover data by Sandra Villarreal (2012). The Barrow IBP vegetation plot data have been extensively analyzed, updated, and published. The IBP study area was active between 1970 and 1973, and focused on a study area near Barrow, Alaska at the northernmost point on the Alaskan Coastal Plain (71°18'N 156°40'W) in close proximity to both the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas. 2012) and as part of a synthesis of the larger IPY Back to the Future project (Callaghan et al. The pH reported by author. The city's native name, Utqiaġvik, refers to a place for gathering wild roots. 1973). Average Weather in Barrow Alaska, United States. A horned puffin in flight. Point Barrow. There is also a companion file with plot photos documenting multiple sampling events. If environmental data are from a table, indicate table number(s) from the reference for environmental data. Tundra vegetation change near Barrow, Alaska (1972-2010). Syntaxon name according to the Braun-Blanquet School. In 1999, 2008, and 2010, 33 of the same plots were resampled for these same measures as part of the IPY "Back to the Future: Resampling old research sites to assess changes in high latitude terrestrial ecosystem structure and function" project. The "Shooting Station" is located a few miles southwest of Point Barrow. For United States, the code is US. NSF Arctic Data Center. Domain: Core ABoVE region. Bollenbacher and J.S. 2016b, Walker 2013). Ordination and production of tundra vegetation from Niwot Ridge, Colorado, and Point Barrow, Alaska. The Iñupiat do not hunt gray whales and joined in rescue operations which also involved Soviet icebreakers.. Station Data. Temperature for the warmest months in the arctic tundra ranges from 3-12° C (37- 57° F). Murray. The 10-cm strip is used for cover assessment and the 90-cm sub-plot for species presence. It reported 152 residents, of which 143 were Native, 8 were "other race" and 1 was White. Point Barrow first appeared on the 1880 U.S. Census as the unincorporated Inuit village of "Kokmullit" (AKA Nuwuk). Broad categories: gravel (GRV), sand (SND), silt (SLT), clay (CLY), loam (LOM), organic (if no mineral soil within the active layer) (ORG). U.S. International Biological Program, Washington DC Tundra Biome Data Report 73-22. 1) is situated near Barrow, Alaska (71018'N, 156042'W). Point Barrow or Nuvuk is a headland on the Arctic coast in the U.S. state of Alaska, 9 miles (14 km) northeast of Utqiaġvik (formerly Barrow). Accuracy of georeference as recorded by GPS (m). For Iñui… For example, Nome city in Alaska occurs in a tundra biome. 1. From the dense moss carpeted rainforests of southeast Alaska, to the wide-open expanses of the tundra on the North Slope these ecosystems and provide habitat for a variety of fish and wildlife species. IPY Back to the Future (BTF): Re-sampling old research sites to assess change in high latitude terrestrial ecosystem structure and function. Monthly averages Barrow Longitude: -156.789, Latitude: 71.2906 Average weather Barrow, AK - 99723. Reference from which the environmental data were taken. Contents of plot environmental data. If source differs, approximate accuracy (m). GPS (GPS), Google Earth (GE), map (MAP), aerial photograph (PHOTO), None (NONE). (Ed). Content of species data files for the vegetation plots. Nome’s precipitation levels hit 18.4 inches. There is also a companion file with plot photos, often these photos document multiple sampling events. Webber, P.J., S. Villarreal, and C.E. Tweedie. Mission. There are still summer cabins constructed by locals and used for subsistence hunting and fishing in this area. Archaeological evidence indicates that Point Barrow was occupied by the ancestors of the Iñupiat for almost 1,000 years prior to the arrival of the first Europeans. Rowing boat off Point Barrow, on the Arctic coast of Alaska, USA, circa 1965. 2012. The Borough works with the tribes, cities, corporations, schools, and businesses to support a strong culture, encourage families and employees to choose a healthy lifestyle, and sustain a vibrant economy. In addition to the numerous data synthesis and analysis papers resulting from this repeating sampling activity, Webber also provided insight on the quality of these and other datasets collected using his plant community sampling method at the Alaska AVA Boulder Workshop (Webber 2014). Method used to collect vegetation-plot data. ", Northernmost point of the United States in Alaska, northernmost point on the North American mainland, "The Northernmost Points In The United States", http://www2.census.gov/prod2/decennial/documents/1880a_v1-17.pdf, http://www2.census.gov/prod2/decennial/documents/1890a_v8-01.pdf, The Papers of Henry W. Greist on Point Barrow, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Point_Barrow&oldid=1012271777, Short description is different from Wikidata, Pages using infobox settlement with bad settlement type, Wikipedia articles with WorldCat-VIAF identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 15 March 2021, at 14:32. Mean height of the canopy within the stand (cm). The savanna biome is basically grassland with very few trees. Productivity of a coastal tundra was studied from 1970 to 1972 at Point Barrow, Alaska, USA. New York: Springer Verlag, Chap. 2014. 3. At Barrow the sun remains above the horizon from 10 May until 2 August, yet the summer climate Sampling of soils for laboratory analyses of pH. - point barrow ak biome -
Data set. 2011). Mean height of herb layer including graminoids, forbs and dwarf shrubs (cm). A region of tundra > 200,000 km2 in area, the arctic slope of Alaska has continuous permafrost, snow cover for 7-9 mo each year, and low relief (Britton 1966). The Tundra Biome aquatic site (Fig. These data are available through the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Two of the major Landmarks in the tundra biome are in Alaska, The first is Million Dollar Bridge, it was built in the early 1900's, it's also called The Miles Glacier Bridge, and got its name from the cost to build it which was 1.4 million dollars. Spatial Coverage: Barrow, Alaska.  In 1890, it returned as Point Barrow, which also included the Refuge & Whaling Station and native settlements of Nuwuk, Ongovehenok and winter village on "Kugaru" (Inaru) River. 1980, Webber 1978, Webber et al. Site moisture. Column name syntax is YYYY-plot number, where YYYY = 1972, 1999, 2008, or 2010. Figure 2. Here’s another unique opportunity: To see the very northernmost point in the U.S. You can take a full-day tour to experience this rugged outpost. A gateway to the Arctic ocean, the history in this part of the world dates back to 500 AD … There are ten data files in comma-separated format (.csv) with this data set. Webber, P. J. The Tundra Biome’s intensive study site is situ- ated on the open tundra approximately 3 km. Point Barrow is an important geographical landmark, marking the limit between two marginal seas of the Arctic Ocean, the Chukchi Sea to the west and the Beaufort Sea to the east.. Arctic Vegetation Plots for IBP Tundra Biome, Barrow, Alaska, 1972-2010. vicinity of Barrow by Mather and Thornthwaite (1956), Weaver (1965), Kelley and Weaver (1969) and others. Ecological investigations of the tundra biome in the Prudhoe Bay region, Alaska. The North Slope Borough is committed to having healthy communities, economically, spiritually and culturally. The mean average temperature vary according to location, with temperatures of -12° C (10° F) in Point Barrow, Alaska located at (71.3 ° N) to -28° C (-18° F) at the Northern region of Greenland (71° N). Annual precipitation levels can reach 20 inches. so named because between 1965 and 1972 it was a launch site for Nike-Cajun and Nike Apache sounding rockets. Spatial Resolution: Point resolution. T. V., C. E. Tweedie, J. Ackerman, C. Andrews, J. Bergstedt, et al. These data and their corresponding resampling data from 1999, 2008, and 2010 for the 33 relocated sites (330 sub-plots) were assessed for change and published as part of a PhD dissertation (Villarreal 2013), site-specific papers (Lara et al. Webber, S.F. The Pre-ABoVE vegetation plot datasets were curated to create the Alaska Arctic Vegetation Archive (AVA-AK; Walker et al. Here’s another unique opportunity: To see the very northernmost point in the U.S. You can take a full-day tour to experience this rugged outpost. Barrow_Tundra_IBP_Species_Data_Repeat_Plots_1972.csv, Barrow_Tundra_IBP_Species_Data_Single_Plots_1972.csv, Barrow_Tundra_IBP_Species_Data_Repeat_Plots_1999.csv, Barrow_Tundra_IBP_Species_Data_Repeat_Plots_2008.csv, Barrow_Tundra_IBP_Species_Data_Repeat_Plots_2010.csv. Nome’s precipitation levels hit 18.4 inches. CAFF Proceedings Report #11. MacLean, Jr., and D.F. Fratercula cirrhata (Tufted Puffin) Fratercula corniculata (Horned Puffin) Basic Info. 2. flat elevated plain (includes plateaus and elevated river terraces) (EL_PLN); hill crest (CRST); shoulder (SHLD); backslope (BACK); footslope (includes toeslopes) (FOOT); flat low plain (LW_PLN); riparian zone (includes active floodplains, drainage channels, water tracks) (RIPZN); lake or pond (LAKE). Temporal Coverage: 1972-08-01 2010-08-01. Beechey could not reach it by ship and had to send a ship's boat ahead. ANPP, BNPP, and TNPP values reported in ORNL data sets. This observatory includes a central facility at Barrow (known officially as Utqiaġvik) and, to the east, the third ARM Mobile Facility at Oliktok Point. (2012) for individual sub-plots. These sites were resampled by Webber, Craig Tweedie, Robert Hollister, Sandra Villarreal and others in 1999, 2008, and 2010, and assessed for community change by Villarreal as part of the 'IPY Back to the Future: Resampling old research sites to assess changes in high latitude terrestrial ecosystem structure and function project' (NSF Award No. Monthly: 1981-2010 normals History: 2007-2019 For example, could be land management unit, national park, or mountain range. Walker Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, La Jolla, California 92093-0244, U.S.A. R.F. Forty-three (43) plots were assessed for estimated percent land cover by species and plot data including moisture, topographic position, slope, aspect, shape, and soil data. Scientists estimate that these frozen landscapes store twice as much carbon as is found in the atmosphere. (Y or N). An Arctic ecosystem: the coastal tundra at Barrow, Alaska. The desert biome is a very dry area, with very little amounts of plants and animals. Major cities in the tundra of Alaska include: -Nome -Point Hope -Barrow -Kaktovik Major landmarks in the tundra of Alaska include: -Wood Tikchik is the largest State Park -Mount McKinley -Soldier's Summit 1980. Springer-Verlag, New York, New York, U.S.A. Webber, P. J., P. C. Miller, F. S. Chapin III, and B. H. McCown. Will specify the source of the name in the previous field. It has not reported separately since. As part of the International Biological Program’s (IBP) Tundra Biome project at Barrow, Alaska, the microclimatic regimes of that region are being investi- gated. ORNL DAAC, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA. One file (.csv format) provides above- and below-ground biomass and leaf area index (LAI) data for a wet arctic tundra meadow (Biome research site 2, Dupontia meadow, vegetation type V) studied from 1970 to 1971 at Point Barrow, Alaska, USA, (71.30 N -156.67 W Elevation 5 m). The database contains vegetation plots from homogeneous plant communities with tables of cover or cover-abundance scores for all species and accompanying environmental site data. 3) Field observations of site factors including slope, aspect, and estimates of cover of bare soil, rocks, and the major plant growth forms. The Arctic-Boreal Vulnerability Experiment (ABoVE) iis a NASA Terrestrial Ecology Program field campaign that will take place in Alaska and western Canada between 2016 and 2021. Forty-three (43) plots were assessed for estimated percent land cover by species and plot data including moisture, topographic position, slope, aspect, shape, and soil data. As a convention, use 360 degrees for north. Large Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment (LBA-ECO), Oregon Transect Ecosystem Research Project (OTTER), Southern African Regional Science Initiative Project (SAFARI 2000), Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS), Vegetation-Ecosystem Modeling and Analysis Project (VEMAP), International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project (ISLSCP II), Atmospheric Tracer Transport Model Intercomparison Project (TransCom), Arctic-Boreal Vulnerability Experiment (ABoVE), Carbon in Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment (CARVE), Airborne Microwave Observatory of Subcanopy and Subsurface (AirMOSS), Atmospheric Carbon and Transport - America (ACT-America), Accelerated Canopy Chemistry Program (ACCP), Global Ecosystem Dynamics Investigation (GEDI), http://geobotanical.portal.gina.alaska.edu/plot-archive/turboveg-table, http://agc.portal.gina.alaska.edu/catalogs/10178-alaska-arctic-vegetation-archive-barrow-vegeta. For example, Nome city in Alaska occurs in a tundra biome. In Walker, D.A. Author's plot number or code if it differs from the reference for the species table. Each vegetation plot consists of a 1 x 10-m belt with a 1-m x 10-cm strip along the inside. Temporal Resolution: Each plot was sampled once in 1972, 1999, 2008, and 2010. Lara M. J, S. Villarreal, D. R. Johnson, R. D. Hollister, P. J. Webbe and C. E. Tweedie. Even during the winter, some ice would be grounded in shallow waters near the shore, but farther out, long breaks would develop in the floating ice as winds and ocean currents push and pull at it. Refer to reference to determine methods used.  It did not report in 1900, but appeared again from 1910-1940. ISBN: 978-9935-431-29-5. Arctic tundra bioclimate zone. Figure 1. highest (1), high (2), high but incomplete (3), moderate (4), moderate and incomplete (5), low (6). Species Data -- Presence and cover. 8) Moist Carex aquatilis-Oncophorus wahlenbergii meadow (4 plots). Fulfilling my goal to run at the northern most point of the US. Group of Inuits of America's Arctic coastline who came to visit the camp of the Canadian explorer Vilhjalmur Stefanson, near Point Barrow.  It is immediately adjacent to the Birnirk Site. Taxa are listed in alphabetical order according to the accepted PASL name. Floristic diversity near Barrow (ca. The tundra at Barrow is considered coastal tundra located in the most northern region of North Slope and is characterized by various microtopographic features such as polygons, as well as many ponds and lakes. Barrow weather averages and climate Barrow, Alaska. 2) Survey of vegetation species and quantification of species cover as described above. Over thousands of years, the remains of plants (and animals) that never fully decomposed have become part of the frozen soil in Alaska, Canada, northern Europe, and Russia. See companion file Barrow_Tundra_Veg_Plots_Photographs.pdf. The headland is an important archaeological site, yielding burials and artifacts associated with the Thule culture, including uluit and bola. The location has been home to the Iñupiat, an Indigenous Inuit ethnic group, for more than 1,500 years. Documentation Revision Date: 6) Dry Salix rotundifolia heath (6 plots). The second file, also in .csv format, provides net primary productivity (NPP) estimates for different plant growth forms for eight … Table 2. Contact for Data Center Access Information: Brown, J., K.R.  All 200 residents were Inuit. At Barrow the sun remains above the horizon from 10 May until 2 August, yet the summer climate John Simpson's native map dated 1855, records the name "Otkiawik," which was misprinted on the subsequent British Admiralty Chart as "Otkiovik." In 1999, 2008, and 2010, 33 of the same plots were resampled for these same measures as part of the “IPY Back to the Future: Resampling old research sites to assess changes in high latitude terrestrial ecosystem structure and function project”. Subzone A (A), Subzone B (B), Subzone C (C), Subzone D (D), Subzone E (E), Treeless Oceanic Boreal (O), Forest-Tundra Transition (FT), Boreal (BO). 120 species, Murray and Murray 1978) is low relative to the 574 vascular plant species recorded on the North Slope of Alaska (Webber 1978). Shape of the relevé area. It is derived from the Iñupiat word utqiq, also used for "potato". In the early 1950s investigations by the U.S. Geological Survey (Brewer 1958) demonstrated the influence of lakes, ocean and buildings on near-surface permafrost temperature regimes and illustrated the characteristic zero curtain during the annual freeze-thaw cycles of 1951 and 1952. 89 Canadian Arctic (Polunin 1948) and the Western Taimyr, USSR (Matveyeva et al. In Barrow, the summers are very cold; the winters are long, frigid, dry, and windy; and it is overcast year round. Vegetation and Production Ecology of an Alaskan Arctic Tundra. One file (.csv format) provides above- and below-ground biomass and leaf area index (LAI) data for a wet arctic tundra meadow (Biome research site 2, Dupontia meadow, vegetation type V) studied from 1970 to 1971 at Point Barrow, Alaska, USA, (71.30 N -156.67 W Elevation 5 m). Area of the relevé (m2). *_Repeat_Plots_YYYY, report data for the 33 plots sampled on all 4 events on the respective year. Environmental characterization data for research plots. Everett, P.J. Natur., Publ. 0000004474 00000 n The accident occurred 15 miles southwest of Utqiagvik (Barrow), a planned stop on their trip from … dry (DRY), moist (MST), wet (WET), aquatic/emergent (AQU), unknown (not recorded) (N). Locations of Barrow IBP vegetation plots. 2018. Ecology 56(2): 401-409. Plot Environmental Data -- Vegetation plot observation and measurement data. Subjective assessment of taxonomic quality of the cryptogam data by the party that submitted the plot. The name was first recorded, by colonizers, in 1853 as "Ot-ki-a-wing" by Commander Rochfort Maguire, Royal Navy. In Vegetation and Production Ecology of … The North Slope Borough is committed to having healthy communities, economically, spiritually and culturally. Point Barrow, northernmost point of Alaska, U.S., situated on the Arctic Ocean.Archaeological evidence dates human habitation (by Inupiaq Eskimos) in the area from about 500 ce.The headland was explored in 1826 by Frederick W. Beechey and named for Sir John Barrow, British promoter of Arctic exploration; its Inupiaq name is Ukpeagvik, meaning “Place Where Owls Are Hunted.” (1978) Effects of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization on the carbohydrate reserve and seasonal nitrogen and phosphorus levels in Dupontia fisheri and Arctogrostis latifolia shoots and rhizomes near Barrow, Alaska. Relevé number in the species table in the reference for species data. Tentative Braun-Blanquet habitat as defined by classes. Species cover data are given as percentage. Photos of Plot 1319 during repeated measurements. 2012.Estimated change in tundra ecosystem function near Barrow, Alaska between 1972 and 2010.Environmental Research Letters 7:015507 Dowden, Hutchinson & Ross, Stroudsburg, Pennsylvania, U.S.A. 7) Mesic Carex aquatilis-Poa arctica meadow (12 plots). natural vegetation (NAT) or anthropologically disturbed (DIS). 2013, Walker and Raynolds 2011). Plot numbers are the same each year. 9) Wet Carex aquatilis-Eriophorum russeolum meadow (8 plots).