“We left after we saw everybody else leaving,” Abir, a 33-year-old teacher who joined the exodus with her husband and three children, told The Associated Press. [102], Annual rainfall, almost entirely confined to the period from November through March, averages approximately 150 mm (5.91 in), but has been as high as 338 mm (13.31 in) and as low as 37 mm (1.46 in). This, in addition to housing several key academic institutions, including the House of Wisdom, as well as hosting a multiethnic and multireligious environment, garnered the city a worldwide reputation as the "Centre of Learning". Sort by. King Faisal II, former Prime Minister Nuri as-Said, former Regent Prince 'Abd al-Ilah, members of the royal family, and others were brutally killed during the coup. best. [24] Mansur loved the site so much he is quoted saying: "This is indeed the city that I am to found, where I am to live, and where my descendants will reign afterward". [11], Arab authors, realizing the pre-Islamic origins of Baghdad's name, generally looked for its roots in Middle Persian. What It’s Like in Baghdad Right Now as an Extremist Group Inches Closer . "We thought we would breathe freedom, we would become like Europe," he says. Mutanabbi Street is located near the old quarter of Baghdad; at Al Rasheed Street. When the Abbasid caliph, Al-Mansur, founded a completely new city for his capital, he chose the name Madinat al-Salaam or City of Peace. It was followed by another war from 2013-2017 and a low-level insurgency from 2017, which included suicide bombings in January 2018, and January 2021.[77]. There is no single city council that singularly governs Baghdad at a municipal level. The number of neighbourhood representatives on a district council is based upon the neighbourhood's population. Baghdad may have been the first city to have over a million inhabitants. Marble was also used to make buildings throughout the city, and marble steps led down to the river's edge. [31] Within the city there were many parks, gardens, villas, and promenades. Here you'll find photos of what ABBA looks like now as well as get updated info on what each of the old band mates have been up too. Screenshot/British Pathé Public pools were becoming more common throughout the city. The city flourished into an unrivaled intellectual center of science, medicine, philosophy, and education, especially with the Abbasid Translation Movement began under the second caliph Al-Mansur and thrived under the seventh caliph Al-Ma'mun. Here's what Baghdad looks like today. Some historians even argue against exaggerated claims about its … [30] Leo is associated with fire and symbolises productivity, pride, and expansion. During the 1970s, Baghdad experienced a period of prosperity and growth because of a sharp increase in the price of petroleum, Iraq's main export. Baghdad is also home to the grave of Abu Hanifa where there is a cell and a mosque above it. [68] When his forces took Baghdad, he spared almost no one, and ordered that each of his soldiers bring back two severed human heads. Several estimates suggest that the city contained over a million inhabitants at its peak. Thousands of ancient manuscripts in the National Library were destroyed under Saddam's command. For poetry written about Baghdad, see Reuven Snir (ed. "History of the Moof Abu Hanifa and its school", "DefenseLink News Article: Soldier Helps to Form Democracy in Baghdad", "Zafaraniya Residents Get Water Project Update – DefendAmerica News Article", "Basics of democracy in Iraq include frustration", "Leaders Highlight Successes of Baghdad Operation – DefendAmerica News Article", "Climatologie mensuelle en juillet 2020 à Baghdad | climatologie depuis 1900 – Infoclimat", "Baghdad Soars to 125 Blistering Degrees, Its Highest Temperature on Record", "Afp.google.com, First snow for 100 years falls on Baghdad", "World Weather Information Service – Baghdad", "Baghdad Climate Guide to the Average Weather & Temperatures, with Graphs Elucidating Sunshine and Rainfall Data & Information about Wind Speeds & Humidity", "Monthly weather forecast and climate for Baghdad, Iraq", "Baghdad plans to build giant Ferris wheel", "Iraq plans giant Ferris wheel, hopes to lure tourists to Baghdad", Wikinews: Iraq plans 'Baghdad Eye' to draw in tourists, "Obama ad attacks McCain for Baghdad Ferris wheel project being built on land leased by a Democratic Party donor", "New Ferris wheel attracts leisure-starved Iraqis", "Baghdad Investment: Creating (1824) housing units in Baghdad", Arrêté du 22 novembre 1990 complétant l'arrêté du 23 août 1990 fixant la liste des établissements d'enseignement prévue à l'article 1er du décret no 90-469 du 31 mai 1990, Deutscher Bundestag 4. [41] Although Arabic was used as the international language of science, the scholarship involved not only Arabs, but also Persians, Syriacs,[42] Nestorians, Jews, Arab Christians,[43][44] and people from other ethnic and religious groups native to the region. In Meri, J.W. The Nezamiyeh was founded by the Persian Nizam al-Mulk, who was vizier of two early Seljuk sultans. In addition, the palace was near other mansions and officer's residences. For a time, Baghdad had been the largest city in the Middle East. "Naked in Baghdad." There were cabarets and taverns, halls for backgammon and chess, live plays, concerts, and acrobats. During the 1970s and 1980s, Saddam Hussein's government spent a lot of money on new monuments, which included the al-Shaheed Monument. From 1851 to 1852 and from 1861 to 1867, Baghdad was governed, under the Ottoman Empire by Mehmed Namık Pasha. Municipally, the governorate is divided into 9 municipalities, which have responsibility for local issues. The name was changed to Al-Mustansiriya University in 1963. Baghdad was a modernizing city, with wide boulevards and grassy traffic circles. Many of the victim's bodies were then dragged through the streets of Baghdad. Eric March. With the recognition of Iraq as an independent state (formerly the British Mandate of Mesopotamia) in 1932, Baghdad gradually regained some of its former prominence as a significant center of Arabic culture, with a population variously estimated at 6 or over 7 million. [56] This would prove to be the last great library built by the caliphs of Baghdad. In 813, after the death of caliph Al-Amin, the palace was no longer used as the home for the caliph and his family. Baghdad was a busy city during the day and had many attractions at night. Thus, an overview will be provided over the rich Islamicare cultures in the medieval Mediterranean, with a focus on today’s Iraq, yet reaching beyond this central region of the Abbasid realm. The land on which the city is built is almost entirely flat and low-lying, being of alluvial origin due to the periodic large floods which have occurred on the river. At this point, Baghdad was ruled by the Ilkhanate, a breakaway state of the Mongol Empire, ruling from Iran. AP News Digest 3:40 a.m. Close. [45][46][47][48][49] These are considered among the fundamental elements that contributed to the flourishing of scholarship in the Medieval Islamic world. what its like living there would depend upon what you compare it to as normal. The historic "Assyrian Quarter" of the city, Dora, which boasted a population of 150,000 Assyrians in 2003, made up over 3% of the capital's Assyrian population then. Ali … [citation needed], This article is about the capital of Iraq. Al-Qushla: Iraq's oasis of free expression. Baghdad accounts for 22.2% of Iraq's population and 40% of the country's gross domestic product (PPP). The first step in the establishment of the system of local government for Baghdad Province was the election of the Baghdad Provincial Council. The following is a selection (rather than a complete list) of these neighborhoods: The city is located on a vast plain bisected by the Tigris river. Baghdad has a long and illustrious history. by Rawlinson, George. On 14 July 1958, members of the Iraqi Army, under Abd al-Karim Qasim, staged a coup to topple the Kingdom of Iraq. Baghdad's record highest temperature of 51.8 °C (125.2 °F) was reached on 28 July 2020. In fact, the 66-year-old looks more like Bobby Ball these days. The group is known for public executions and beheading opponents in its takeovers and a top U.N. human rights official said today there were reports of public executions in Mosul, including 17 people on just one street. [8] Modern scholars generally tend to favor this etymology,[8] which views the word as a compound of bagh () "god" and dād () "given". [130], Baghdad is home to some of the most successful football (soccer) teams in Iraq, the biggest being Al-Shorta (Police), Al-Quwa Al-Jawiya (Airforce club), Al-Zawra'a, and Talaba (Students). [120] This project not only addresses the urgent need for new residential units in Baghdad but also acts as a real symbol of progress in the war torn city, as Baghdad has not seen projects of this scale for decades.[121]. The purpose or use of the remaining space in the center is unknown. Famous Arab poets and singers such as Nizar Qabbani, Umm Kulthum, Fairuz, Salah Al-Hamdani, Ilham al-Madfai and others have performed for the city. The canals and dykes forming the city's irrigation system were also destroyed. Also, the wall was 30 m high, which included merlons, a solid part of an embattled parapet usually pierced by embrasures. [74] On 1 April 1941, members of the "Golden Square" and Rashid Ali staged a coup in Baghdad. Timur left the Sarbadar prince Khwaja Mas'ud to govern Baghdad, but he was driven out when Ahmad Jalayir returned. [20][21][unreliable source?] Moreover, entry fees were usually so low that almost everyone could afford them. [12][13] In Old Persian the first element can be traced to boghu and is related to Slavic bog "god",[8][14] A similar term in Middle Persian is the name Mithradāt (Mihrdād in New Persian), known in English by its Hellenistic form Mithridates, meaning "Given by Mithra" (dāt is the more archaic form of dād, related to Latin dat and English donor[8]). Like everyone else, I am denied my basic rights. [83] It is characterized by the iconic clock tower which was donated by George V. The entire area is submitted to the UNESCO World Heritage Site Tentative list.[84]. The largest stadium in Baghdad is Al-Shaab Stadium, which was opened in 1966. In addition, the go-ahead has been given to build numerous architecturally unique skyscrapers along the Tigris that would develop the city's financial centre in Kadhehemiah. The CIA World Factbook estimated the 2020 population of Baghdad at 7,144,000. This page was last edited on 6 April 2021, at 22:06. Joneidi, F. (2007). Sieges and wars in which Baghdad was involved are listed below: In 1058, Baghdad was captured by the Fatimids under the Turkish general Abu'l-Ḥārith Arslān al-Basasiri, an adherent of the Ismailis along with the 'Uqaylid Quraysh. Mackenzie, D. (1971). (1932). level 1. There, local councils were elected from 20 neighbourhoods (Nahia) and these councils elected representatives from their members to serve on six district councils (Qada). Baghdad's population was estimated at 7.22 million in 2015. However, now it is generally considered by Iraqis to be for all of the martyrs of Iraq, especially those allied with Iran and Syria fighting ISIS, not just of the Iran–Iraq War. For other uses, see, Palestine Meridian hotel and Ishtar Sheraton hotel, Center of learning (8th to 9th centuries), Stagnation and invasions (10th to 16th centuries), Estimates of total population differ substantially. Winter temperatures are typical of hot desert climates. One family of 12 said they would sleep together on a thin mattress lining the back of a pickup truck. The community has been subject to kidnappings, death threats, vandalism, and house burnings by al-Qaeda and other insurgent groups. Baghdad has suffered severely from visitations of the plague and cholera,[70] and sometimes two-thirds of its population has been wiped out.[71]. [76] The Iraq War took place from 2003-2011, but an Islamist insurgency lasted until 2013. Posted by 25 days ago. Baghdad’s position along the Silk Road made it especially favorable for trade. Iran launched a number of missile attacks against Baghdad in retaliation for Saddam Hussein's continuous bombardments of Tehran's residential districts. Tughril Beg saw himself as the protector of the Abbasid Caliphs.[59]. This three tier system of local government connected the people of Baghdad to the central government through their representatives from the neighbourhood, through the district, and up to the city council. 12 years ago, we invaded Iraq. Turn on desktop notifications for breaking stories about interest? Americas. Within eight days following the 2003 invasion, however, only 35 of the 650 animals in the facility survived. [75] However, the Iran–Iraq War of the 1980s was a difficult time for the city, as money was diverted by Saddam Hussein to the army and thousands of residents were killed. A Simple and Useful Guide to Understanding the Conflict in Iraq, ISIS: What to Know About the Military Group Taking Over Iraq, “I used to go every Friday to al-Ghazil market and I used to see a large number of people there,” Arkan says in a Reuters video. [3] The city was largely destroyed at the hands of the Mongol Empire in 1258, resulting in a decline that would linger through many centuries due to frequent plagues and multiple successive empires. In 1401, Baghdad was again sacked, by Timur. [65] It has been argued that this marked an end to the Islamic Golden Age and served a blow from which Islamic civilisation never fully recovered.[66]. In the center of the city stood the two finest buildings in the city: the Great Mosque and the caliph’s … [33] In fact, by the time of Harun al-Rashid, Baghdad had a few thousand hammams. As early as 2003, about 20 percent of the population of the city was the result of mixed marriages between Shi'ites and Sunnis. Le Strange, G. (n.d.). What It’s Like in Baghdad Right Now as an Extremist Group Inches Closer. The nine districts are subdivided into 89 smaller neighborhoods which may make up sectors of any of the districts above. [73] After receiving independence in 1932, the capital of the Kingdom of Iraq. They were both influential in the royal court and they showed concern for the welfare of the community. 13.8k. ", Stanek, L., Miastoprojekt goes abroad: the transfer of architectural labour from socialist Poland to Iraq (1958–1989), The Journal of Architecture, Volume 17, Issue 3, 2012, CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (, substantial loss of cultural heritage and historical artifacts, Learn how and when to remove this template message, staged a coup to topple the Kingdom of Iraq, List of neighborhoods and districts in Baghdad, Sindbad Hotel Complex and Conference Center, "Mortality after the 2003 invasion of Iraq: a cross-sectional cluster sample survey", "Cities and urban areas in Iraq with population over 100,000", "BAGHDAD i. [63] Many quarters were ruined by fire, siege, or looting. In May 2010, a new residential and commercial project nicknamed Baghdad Gate was announced.