To investigate the unexplained laws of Nature and the powers latent in man. [363][c] Blavatsky, it seemed to Thomas Müller, "was either deceived by others or carried away by her own imaginations. Dat werd de Société Spirite, die gebaseerd zou moeten zijn op de uitgangspunten van Allan Kardec. [199] The report caused much tension within the Society, with a number of Blavatsky's followers – among them Babaji and Subba Row – denouncing her and resigning from the organisation on the basis of it. VI , 272. Daarnaast was hij lid van de American Oriental Society, de Royal Asiatic Society van Groot-Brittannië en Ierland en de Pali Text Society. Het eerste wortelras was astraal; het tweede had al meer een fysiek lichaam en leefde in Hyperborea. [78] In 1867, she proceeded to the Balkans, Hungary, and then Italy, where she spent time in Venice, Florence, and Mentana, claiming that in the latter she had been injured fighting for Giuseppe Garibaldi at the Battle of Mentana. Blavatsky definieerde de sectie als de plaats voor de ware theosofen. I learned from her how foolish, how 'gullible', how easily flattered human beings are, taken en masse. Thus, all critics of her are deflected by her believers, who say that "the slanders on her reputation are the signs of grace: the stigmata that all great martyrs must bear. [183][184], Sailing to Marseilles, France, in March 1883, she spent time in Nice with the founder of the Theosophical Society's French branch, the Countess of Caithness (widow of James Sinclair, 14th Earl of Caithness), with whom she continued to Paris. by Boris de Zirkoff", Young H. P. von Hahn, a bust by Ukrainian sculptor Alexey Leonov, The Blavatsky Study Center / Blavatsky Archives, The theosophical movement of the nineteenth century: the legitimation of the disputable and the entrenchment of the disreputable,, Converts to Buddhism from Eastern Orthodoxy, Emigrants from the Russian Empire to the United States, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing Russian-language text, Articles containing Ukrainian-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2020, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the ODNB, Pages using Sister project links with wikidata mismatch, Pages using Sister project links with wikidata namespace mismatch, Pages using Sister project links with hidden wikidata, Pages using Sister project links with default search, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with PLWABN identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with multiple identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Na de ontmoeting met Sinnett en zijn gebleken grote interesse in haar opvattingen en het werk van de Theosophical Society besloot Blavatsky een mogelijkheid te creëren waardoor Sinnett kon corresponderen met Morya en Koot Hoomi. She subscribed to the anti-Christian current of thought within Western esotericism which emphasized the idea of an ancient and universal "occult science" that should be revived. In 1877, she published Isis Unveiled, a book outlining her Theosophical world-view. Having been born on the seventh month of the year she was call… [13] Pyotr had not been present at his daughter's birth, having been in Poland fighting to suppress the November Uprising against Russian rule, and first saw her when she was six months old. Blavatsky understood her Theosophy to be the heir to the Neoplatonist philosophers of Late Antiquity, who had also embraced Hermetic philosophy. Die hadden ook aangetoond dat er ruimte was voor nieuwe religieuze bewegingen met een aanzienlijke omvang. 31 July] 1831 – 8 May 1891) was a Russian philosopher and author who co-founded the Theosophical Society in 1875. In 1864, while riding in Mingrelia, Blavatsky fell from her horse and was in a coma for several months with a spinal fracture. Various biographers have noted that by the late 20th and early 21st century, Blavatsky was little known among the general public. Recovering in Tiflis, she claimed that upon awaking she gained full control of her paranormal abilities. [27] Voor de theosofische beweging van die tijd eindigde de kwestie met een nieuwe Mahatmabrief van Koot Hoomi. In Isis Unveiled, she spoke well of Jesus as one who, though a "poor, unknown Jewish carpenter" and "no master of social etiquette," nonetheless became a great reformer, teaching a "sublime code of ethics," and also, like Paul and other early church fathers an "initiate," qualified to teach and practice the Ancient Wisdom in terms suitable to the time and place. In dat klimaat ontstond nieuwe interesse voor andere spirituele aspecten. She had a greater power over the weak and credulous, a greater capacity for making black appear white, a larger waist, a more voracious appetite, a more confirmed passion for tobacco, a more ceaseless and insatiable hatred for those whom she thought to be her enemies, a greater disrespect for les convenances, a worse temper, a greater command of bad language, and a greater contempt for the intelligence of her fellow-beings than I had ever supposed possible to be contained in one person. Dit werk zou de basis vormen voor haar standaardwerk in de theosofie, De Geheime Leer. [219] Buddhologist David Reigle claimed that he identified Books of Kiu-te, including Blavatsky's Book of Dzyan as a first volume, as the Tantra section of the Tibetan Buddhist canon. Bij gebrek aan een antwoord maakte Kiddle in 1883 de kwestie bekend in een ingezonden brief aan hetzelfde tijdschrift.[26]. [120] They began living together in a series of rented apartments in New York City, which they decorated with taxidermied animals and images of spiritual figures; their life was funded largely by Olcott's continued work as a lawyer. The society's Board of Control had accused Emma Coulomb of misappropriating their funds for her own purposes, and asked her to leave their center. Helena Blavatsky, también conocida como Madame Blavatsky, (Yekaterinoslav, 12 de agosto de 1831-Londres, 8 de mayo de 1891), fue una escritora, ocultista y teósofa rusa.Su nombre de soltera era Helena von Hahn, y tras un breve matrimonio con Nikiphor Blavatsky adoptó el nombre Helena Petrovna Blavatskaya —Елена Петровна Блаватская, en ruso— As a matter of fact, H.P.B. [208] She received messages from members of the Society's London Lodge who were dissatisfied with Sinnett's running of it; they believed that he was focusing on attaining upper-class support rather than encouraging the promotion of Theosophy throughout society, a criticism Blavatsky agreed with. [280] In 1875 schreef zij een aantal artikelen voor het in Boston gevestigde tijdschrift Spiritual Scientist. Na een kort verblijf in Napels vestigde zij zich in Würzburg in de Ludwigstrasse[8] en woonde er later samen met gravin Constance Wachtmeister, die zij in 1884 in Londen had ontmoet. Germain. Theosophical History: A Quarterly Journal of Research, XIX(4), 2nd ser., 158-171. That was, more than anything else, the vision of the succession of root races. By the early 1870s, Blavatsky was involved in the Spiritualist movement; although defending the genuine existence of Spiritualist phenomena, she argued against the mainstream Spiritualist idea that the entities contacted were the spirits of the dead. Lori Pierce, "Origins of Buddhism in North America", in, sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFJohnson1994 (, The Fraud of Modern "Theosophy" Exposed (1912), by J. N. Maskelyne, Theosophy: Origin of the New Age – C. C. Martindale in, sfn error: no target: CITEREFMelton1990 (. [109] In December 1874, Blavatsky met the Georgian Mikheil Betaneli. [274] In turn, Blavatsky believed that the Theosophical movement's revival of the "ancient wisdom religion" would lead to it spreading across the world, eclipsing the established world religions. In 1986 the SPR admitted this to be the case and retracted the findings of the report. For when you have made the best of an adversity, it becomes the stepping stone to a splendid opportunity. She gained an international following as the leading theoretician of Theosophy, the movement known by the slogan "There is no religion higher than truth". Among the abilities that she ascribed to these "Masters" were clairvoyance, clairaudience, telepathy, and the ability to control another's consciousness, to dematerialize and rematerialize physical objects, and to project their astral bodies, thus giving the appearance of being in two places at once. [295] She further believed that humanity would eventually develop into the final, seventh Root Race. Een aantal auteurs buiten theosofische kringen komt op basis van onderzoek tot de conclusie, dat het hier een kind van Blavatsky zelf betreft, geboren uit een relatie met Metrovich. (In 1888 without distinction of sex or caste was added.) H. P. Blavatsky (1831-1891) was one of the most extraordinary and controversial figures of the 19th century. Een periode in Caïro van oktober 1871 tot april 1872 is feitelijk het enige verblijf buiten Europa van Blavatsky dat in deze periode onomstreden is. Veel biografen zetten de ontvankelijkheid voor de ideeën van Blavatsky bij sommige groepen in – met name – de Amerikaanse en Britse samenleving in onder meer het kader van de nieuwe wetenschappelijke ontdekkingen van de negentiende eeuw. [182] With her health deteriorating, she agreed to accompany Olcott on his trip to Britain, where he was planning to argue the case for Ceylonese Buddhism and sort out problems with the Society's London Lodge. . [124], At a Miracle Club meeting on 7 September 1875, Blavatsky, Olcott, and Judge agreed to establish an esoteric organisation, with Charles Sotheran suggesting that they call it the Theosophical Society. [27] The family proceeded to Poland and then back to Odessa, where Blavatsky's mother died of tuberculosis in June 1842, aged 28. by Peter Lauer", "Hitler's racial ideology: content and occult sources", "Theosophical Society Membership Statistics 2007/2008", "Who played that trick on H.P.B.? [116] Bij een aantal groepen in de samenleving leidde dat tot het verdwijnen van traditionele Bijbelse opvattingen, maar tegelijkertijd tot de overtuiging dat veel van de nieuwe inzichten te materialistisch van aard waren. Helena Petrovna Blavatsky-von Hahn, kortweg HPB, werd geboren op 12 augustus 1831 in het toenmalige Jekaterinoslaw in de Oekraïne. The first to advance this theory, without further proof, was L.A. Bosman, a Jewish Theosophist, in his booklet The Mysteries of the Qabalah (1916) p. 31. [100] It was during these travels that she met with the writer and traveler Lidia Pashkova, who provided independent verification of Blavatsky's travels during this period. Daarom zijn wij zo vrij om onze bewering te handhaven tegenover de mening van veel geleerden... Wetenschappelijke gevolgtrekking is één ding, en kennis van feiten, hoe onwetenschappelijk die ook op het eerste gezicht schijnen te zijn, is een tweede. [190] In response, in November 1884 Blavatsky headed to Cairo, where she and Theosophist Charles Webster Leadbeater searched for negative information on Emma Coulomb, discovering stories of her alleged former history of extortion and criminality. De veronderstelling dat uit de evolutietheorie van Darwin kon worden afgeleid dat mensen van de apen afstammen, had eind negentiende eeuw tot veel cartoons in kranten en tijdschriften geleid. The traditionalist René Guénon wrote a detailed critique of Theosophy, in which he claimed that Blavatsky had acquired all her knowledge naturally from other books, not from any supernatural masters. [353] Ferdinand de Saussure is also known to have attended séances and wrote a lengthy analysis of the Theosophical claims about linguistics and India, "la théosophie brahmanique (Brahamanic Theosophy)" while delivering his Cours de linguistique générale. [107] Indeed, it was while in New York that "detailed records" of Blavatsky's life again become available to historians. Metrovich kwam om, maar Blavatsky behoorde tot de slechts zeventien overlevenden. The Theosophical Society influenced the growth of Indian national consciousness, with prominent figures in the Indian independence movement, among them Mohandas Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru, being inspired by Theosophy to study their own national heritage. [237] In later life, she was known for wearing loose robes, and wore many rings on her fingers. Eind elfde, begin twaalfde eeuw werd die in het Tibetaans vertaald. Gary Lachman wrote, "Although few historians have noted it, in Isis Unveiled (1877), Blavatsky presented the first major intellectual -- not religious -- criticism of evolution." Het laatste boek werd het standaardwerk van de theosofischebeweging, waarvan zij de … [252] The Indologist Alexander Senkevich stated that Blavatsky's charisma exerted influence on Charles Massey and Stainton Moses. {Henry Steel Olcott, Old Diary Leaves, First Series. [22] After Fadeyev was assigned to become a trustee for the Kalmyk people of Central Asia, Blavatsky and her mother accompanied him to Astrakhan, where they befriended a Kalmyk leader, Tumen. [96] However, Blavatsky believed that Cutting and many of the mediums employed by the society were fraudulent, and she closed it down after two weeks. [53] According to biographer Peter Washington, at this point "myth and reality begin to merge seamlessly in Blavatsky's biography". In die artikelen hanteerde zij voor het eerst de term theosofie, een term die onder meer al door Jakob Böhme begin zeventiende eeuw werd gebruikt. De Society for Psychical Research was inmiddels gevraagd onderzoek te doen naar de beschuldigingen van het echtpaar Coulomb. In augustus verbleef zij in Duitsland. Die reis was tevergeefs en kort daarna moet Yuri zijn overleden. Agehananda Bharati dismissed it as "a melee of horrendous hogwash and of fertile inventions of inane esoterica". [106] It was here that she attracted attention, and was interviewed by the journalist Anna Ballard of the New York newspaper The Sun; this interview was the earliest textual source in which Blavatsky claimed to have spent time in Tibet. Blavatsky's social and political beliefs, like much else in her life, are not always consistent, though reflect what she felt she could reveal of a larger vision. [320], According to religious studies scholar Mark Bevir, Blavatsky "adapted the occult tradition to meet the challenge of Victorian science and morality". Blavatsky werd tijdens haar leven en ook daarna vele malen beschuldigd van bedrog. [127] Theosophists would often argue over how to define Theosophy, with Judge expressing the view that the task was impossible. De meerderheid van de huidige mensheid behoort in de visie van Blavatsky nog tot een subras van het vierde wortelras. [258] He suggested that her "emotional fuel" was partly "a hatred of oppression", either through the intellectual domination of Christianity or through British imperialism. She had good relations with certain liberal Protestants, nor did she offer much criticism of her natal Eastern Orthodoxy. [228] She continued to face accusations of fraud; U.S. newspaper The Sun published a July 1890 article based on information provided by an ex-member of the Society, Elliott Coues. [18] When Blavatsky was two years old, her younger brother, Sasha, died in another army town when no medical help could be found. The influence of her life, writings and teachings on world thought has been significant. "[247] Washington expressed the view that she was "a persuasive story-teller [with the] power to fascinate others" although noted that she was also "self-absorbed and egotistical". [33], She later claimed that in Saratov she discovered the personal library of her maternal great-grandfather, Prince Pavel Vasilevich Dolgorukov (d. 1838); it contained a variety of books on esoteric subjects, encouraging her burgeoning interest in it. [244] The religious studies scholar Bruce F. Campbell noted that she had been a "strong-willed, independent child", and that the harsh environment of her childhood might have resulted in her "difficulty in controlling her temper and ... her tendency to swear". It was in this city that Blavatsky's sister Vera Petrovna was born. [287][290] The second Root Race, known as the Hyperboreans, were also formed from pure spirit and lived on a land near to the North Pole, which then had a mild climate. )/31 juli 1831 – Londen, 8 mei 1891) was een Amerikaanse occultiste en publiciste van Duits-Russische aristocratische afkomst. In all else, she was a big woman. [121] Their last such apartment came to be known as the Lamasery. Even their differences of opinion do not destroy their unity." Het boekwerk bestaat uit twee delen. 31 July] 1831 – 8 May 1891) was a Russian philosopher and author who co-founded the Theosophical Society in 1875. [361], Blavatsky "both incorporated a number of the doctrines of eastern religions into her occultism, and interpreted eastern religions in the light of her occultism", in doing so extending a view of the "mystical East" that had already been popularized through Romanticist poetry. 'Ik weet niet wie de Mahatma Brieven schreef, maar ik vind het niet aannemelijk dat Mw. [66] Sailing to the U.S., she visited New York City, where she met up with Rawson, before touring Chicago, Salt Lake City, and San Francisco, and then sailing back to India via Japan. 'Het Hodgson-rapport is (..) een hoogst partijdig document dat elk recht op wetenschappelijke onpartijdigheid verspeelt. Helena Petrovna Blavatsky werd op 12 augustus 1831 in Dnjepropetrovsk in Rusland (nu Oekraïne) geboren; ze was de dochter van kolonel Peter Alexejevitsj von Hahn en de romanschrijfster Helena Andrejevna De Fadjejev. Voor het grootste deel van dit reisprogramma bestaan, buiten de periodes in Rusland, geen andere bronnen dan haar eigen beweringen in latere geschriften. Tijdens de seances werden de opgeroepen geesten ondervraagd over onderwerpen als wetenschap, geschiedenis en filosofie. [151] In the city, they were greeted with celebrations organised by Arya Samaj member Hurrychund Chintamon before obtaining a house in Girgaum Road, part of Bombay's native area. {Blavatsky, Isis Unveiled, Vol. [166], Upon learning that old comrade Emma Coulomb (née Cutting) and her husband had fallen into poverty in Ceylon, Blavatsky invited them to move into her home in Bombay. In Blavatsky's cosmogony, the first Root Race were created from pure spirit and lived on a continent known as the "Imperishable Sacred Land". In publicaties uit theosofische kringen is er sprake van een geadopteerd kind. [104][105] There, she moved into a women's housing cooperative on Madison Street in Manhattan's Lower East Side, earning a wage through piece work sewing and designing advertising cards. [221] In the book, Blavatsky outlined her own cosmogonical ideas about how the universe, the planets, and the human species came to exist. [160] The magazine soon obtained a large readership, with the management being taken over by Damodar K. Mavalankar, a Theosophist who introduced the idea of referring to the Masters as mahatmas. Het Hodgson Rapport had drie conclusies. Blavatsky, Helena Petrovna (1831-1891) One of the most influential occult thinkers of the nineteenth century, Blavatsky left behind conflicting images of adventuress, author, mystic, guru, occultist, and charlatan. Nog tijdens het leven van Blavatsky waren er ruim 25 theosofen die claimden een ontmoeting met een van de Mahatma's te hebben gehad op plekken in bijvoorbeeld Rusland, Engeland, Verenigde Staten, India, Ceylon en een zeilboot op de Stille Oceaan. Ze ontmoette er gravin Sofia Kiselyova (1801-1875), die ze zou vergezellen op haar reis naar Egypte, Griekenland en Oost-Europa. De Geheime Leer Haar belangrijkste werk […] [79], She claimed to have then received a message from Morya to travel to Constantinople, where he met her, and together they traveled overland to Tibet, going through Turkey, Persia, Afghanistan, and then into India, entering Tibet via Kashmir. She says: “There exists somewhere in this wide world an old Book… It is the only copy now in existence. In de herfst van 1884 verbleef Blavatsky acht weken bij consul Gustav en Mary Gebhard in Elberfeld. [256] Some have suggested that she may have been a lesbian or transvestite, due to early accounts in which she traveled while dressed in masculine attire. Zij pleegde hiermee in feite bigamie, aangezien haar eerste huwelijk niet ontbonden was en haar echtgenoot nog in leven. Her contempt for her kind was on the same gigantic scale as everything else about her, except her marvellously delicate taper fingers. [189], With Blavatsky in Europe, trouble broke out at the society's Adyar headquarters in what became known as the Coulomb Affair. Blavatsky beschreef de Mahatma's als stervelingen, die echter een intellectueel en spiritueel niveau hadden dat veel hoger was dan van alle andere personen in de wereld. Blavatsky was van opvatting dat dit slechts amateurs waren, en besloot een eigen sociëteit op te richten die zich richtte op onderzoek naar spiritualistische verschijnselen. [163] Blavatsky and Olcott were then invited to Ceylon by Buddhist monks. Daar stichtte zij het tijdschrift Lucifer (lichtbrenger), waarvan het eerste nummer in september uitkwam. Beide vrouwen beschuldigden elkaar van onder meer laster en dat leidde in 1890 tot een rechtszaak, [12] waar ook Elliott Coues, voormalig lid van de TS, bij betrokken was. Het laatste boek werd het standaardwerk van de theosofische beweging, waarvan zij de grondlegger was. [194], Worsening health led Blavatsky to contemplate a return to the milder climate of Europe, and resigning her position as corresponding secretary of the society, she left India in March 1885. Biografen buiten de theosofische beweging houden deze bewering voor onhoudbaar. Het betrof drie huizen, verbonden door een tuin en een deel van het gebouw was de woning van Annie Besant geweest. Dat ging niet alleen over het manipuleren en in scène zetten van occulte fenomenen, maar ook over het op omvangrijke wijze plegen van plagiaat. [169] Sinnett was eager to contact the Masters himself, convincing Blavatsky to facilitate this communication, resulting in the production of over 1400 pages allegedly authored by Koot Hoomi and Morya, which came to be known as the Mahatma Letters. [23] Coleman beschuldigde Blavatsky van het schenden van belangrijke 'literaire regels' en in Mijn boeken erkende Blavatsky er een paar niet te hebben gekend toen ze Isis Ontsluierd schreef. [99], Leaving Egypt, she proceeded to Syria, Palestine, and Lebanon, there encountering members of the Druze religion. Other organizations loosely based on Theosophical texts and doctrines include the Agni Yoga, and a group of religions based on Theosophy called the Ascended Master Teachings: the "I AM" Activity, The Bridge to Freedom, Universal Medicine and The Summit Lighthouse, which evolved into the Church Universal and Triumphant. [9] At the time, Yekaterinoslav was undergoing a cholera epidemic, and her mother contracted the disease shortly after childbirth; despite the expectations of their doctor, both mother and child survived the epidemic. [12] Blavatsky's father was Pyotr Alexeyevich von Hahn (Russian: Пётр Алексеевич Ган, 1798–1873), a descendant of the German von Hahn aristocratic family, who served as a captain in the Russian Royal Horse Artillery, and would later rise to the rank of colonel. In dat jaar werd daar ook haar zuster Vera Petrovna geboren. De armen en handen van de baviaan hielden een exemplaar van Darwin's, De alchemische bruiloft van Christiaan Rozenkruis, HPB: Het bijzondere leven en de invloed van Helena Blavatsky, H.P. Helena-Blavatsky-c.1889.jpg 600 × 960; 303 KB Hours with the ghosts, or, Nineteenth century witchcraft - illustrated investigations into the phenomena of spiritualism and theosophy (1897) (14591793778).jpg 1,408 × 1,972; 628 KB Die these, variaties daarop maar ook meer complexe vormen van dissociatieve identiteitsstoornis worden ook door meerdere hedendaagse biografen genoemd. "[252][a] Another person who said Blavatsky was a remarkable woman was a former associate and publisher of the Theosophical magazine Lucifer 1887–1889, Mabel Collins. "[364] Lewis, James R., and J. Gordon Melton, eds. [24], In 1838, Blavatsky's mother moved with her daughters to be with her husband at Poltava, where she taught Blavatsky how to play the piano and organised for her to take dance lessons. Koot Hoomi was described as having spent time in London and Leipzig, being fluent in both English and French, and like Morya was a vegetarian. 2 talking about this. "[324], Parasychologist Nandor Fodor stated, "Whatever result psycho-analysts may arrive at in the study of her [Blavatsky's] complex character, it must be admitted that she was a remarkable woman and that she indeed possessed psychic powers which, however, fell far short of the miraculous feats she constantly aimed at. Kiddle was een Amerikaan met enige interesse in spiritualisme, die in augustus 1880 tijdens een zomerkamp een speech had gehouden. Associating it closely with the esoteric doctrines of Hermeticism and Neoplatonism, Blavatsky described Theosophy as "the synthesis of science, religion and philosophy", proclaiming that it was reviving an "Ancient Wisdom" which underlay all the world's religions. Sommige biografen menen bij die groepen in de samenleving een drang te ontdekken om in die spirituele diversiteit een uniforme sleutel te zoeken die de mysteries van het universum duidelijk zou maken.