Jahrhundert diskutiert, scheiterte aber immer am East River, der kein Fluss, sondern ein Meeresarm mit starken gezeitenabhängigen Strömungen und dichtem Schiffsverkehr ist. [345] In addition, it was placed on UNESCO's list of tentative World Heritage Sites in 2017. [258] Work on the pedestrian entrance on the Brooklyn side was underway by 2017. [64], There have been several notable jumpers from the Brooklyn Bridge. [119] In January 1877, a contract for crucible steel was awarded to J. Lloyd Haigh,[19][122][123] who was associated with bridge trustee Abram Hewitt, whom Roebling distrusted. Damit alle New Yorker die Brooklyn Bridge nutzen konnten, wurde sie sowohl mit Fahrbahnen, als auch mit Wegen für Fußgänger und Radfahrer, die sich oberhalb der Fahrbahnen befinden, gebaut. Von hier aus kann man mit einen Weitwinkel <14 die Brücke in ihrer ganzen Pracht fotografieren. [40][96] The blocks sometimes vibrated the ropes because of their weight, but only once did a block fall. [310] The entrance ramp to the bridge on the Manhattan side was subsequently dedicated as the Ari Halberstam Memorial Ramp. Die Länge zwischen den Ankern der Tragkabel beträgt 1068 m (3455 ft 6 in). [151], Construction on the bridge itself was noted in formal reports that Murphy presented each month to the mayors of New York and Brooklyn. In 1919, Giorgio Pessi piloted what was then one of the world's largest airplanes, the Caproni Ca.5, under the bridge. The line carried three million people in the first six months, nine million in 1884, and nearly 20 million in 1885 following the opening of the Brooklyn Union Elevated Railroad. [29][27], Each of the side spans is reached by an approach ramp. [118], By December 1876, a steel contract for the permanent cables still had not been awarded. A flotilla of ships visited the harbor, officials held parades,[333][334] and Grucci Fireworks held a fireworks display that evening. Many People Using the Cars on the Opening Day--Col. Paine Loses His Only Once", "Brooklyn Bridge Anniversary; Statistics as to Its Work and Income Since It Was Opened", "Trolleys on the Bridge; Cars of Five Brooklyn Lines Cross the Structure to Manhattan Borough", "Double-Deck Plan For Brooklyn Bridge; Mr. Hildenbrand Criticises Scheme of Mr. Lindenthal", "Big Break Alarms Vast Bridge Crowd; Twelye Suspension Rods on The Cables Snap", "Inspection Of The Brooklyn Bridge; Commissioner Lindenthal Says It Is Thorough and Systematic", "New Bridge In A Glory Of Fire; Wind-Up of Opening Ceremonies a Brilliant Scene", "Queensboro Bridge Opens To Traffic; A Great Host Sees the Mayor and Officials in Autos Speed Across", "To Abolish Tolls On City Bridges; Mayor Gaynor Believes There Is No Legal Warrant for Taxing Vehicle Traffic", "Prize Fund for Atwood; Talk of One After Washington Commerce Chamber Refuses to Help", "Aldermen Abolish Tolls for Wagons on Bridges", "Brooklyn Bridge Closed to Motor Traffic, Manhattan Bridge to Horse-Drawn Vehicles", "Brooklyn Bridge Safe, But Rebuild It, Whalen Advises; Two Big Cables Slip and the Capacity of the Structure Has Been Reached", "Wants New Bridge At Twenty-Third St.; Whalen Would Build Another Span to Brooklyn and Keep Old Bridge, Too", "Brooklyn Bridge to Be Modernized As Highway for 6,000 Cars an Hour; One-Time 'Eighth Wonder of the World' to Undergo Its First Major Changes -Engineers' Planning to Take a Year", "Brooklyn Span Job Is 'Up' to Schedule'; Laying New Roadbed on Brooklyn Bridge", "Brooklyn Bridge To Carry 6 Lanes; Steel Mesh Roadway, Ready in 1950, Included in $2,400,000 Modernization Plan", "New Approaches to Speed Brooklyn Bridge Traffic", "Brooklyn Bridge Traffic Will Undergo Changes", "Brooklyn Span, All Slicked Up, Set to Reopen", "Brooklyn Bridge Gets a New Lane; New Three-Lane Road Opened on Brooklyn Bridge", "New Three-Lane North Roadway of Brooklyn Bridge Opened to Traffic", "Brooklyn Bridge Back In Full Use; Strollers and Drivers Happy as Ceremony Reopens Span After Four - Year Curbs", "Cold War "Time Capsule" Found in Brooklyn Bridge", "War Barricades Set up on Bridges; City Prepares to Protect Its Bridges Against Sabotage", "Planning to Give the City a Clearer View of Its Famed Brooklyn Bridge", "3-Level Road Link In Brooklyn Open; Downtown Congestion Eased by $12,000,000 Section of 11-Mile Expressway", "New Traffic Link in the Heart of Brooklyn Is Opened", "Wide Bridge Link Set for Brooklyn; Fulton Street-Atlantic Ave. [26] The promenade is usually located 4 feet (1.2 m) below the height of the girders, except at the approach ramps leading to each tower's balcony. Dort wurden die Wagen in ein stetig umlaufendes Seil eingeklinkt, das von einer Dampfmaschine auf der Brooklyn-Seite bewegt wurde. [56] The current Brooklyn Bridge was conceived by German immigrant John Augustus Roebling in 1852. Eine Brücke ohne störende Pfeiler, die den Meeresarm weit über den Schiffsmasten in einer großen Spanne überquert, wäre die ideale Lösung gewesen, schien aber damals jenseits aller technischen Möglichkeiten zu sein. [58] Two months later, the New York and Brooklyn Bridge Company was incorporated with a board of directors (later converted to a board of trustees). Teilweise heißt es, alle seien begeistert gewesen und hätten zu Hunderttausenden am Eröffnungstag die Brücke beschritten. Die neu eröffnete Brooklyn Bridge war ein Wunder ihrer Zeit, und Illustrationen davon waren in der Öffentlichkeit beliebt. Welche Insider-Spots ihr unbedingt ansehen müsst und welche tollen Touren es gibt, zeigen wir euch in diesem Artikel! Crossbeams run between the trusses at the top, and diagonal and vertical stiffening beams run on the outside and inside of each roadway. It is the result of the study, of the experience, and of the knowledge of many men in many ages. Duffy jumped and was not seen again. [257], In August 2016, after the renovation had been completed, the NYCDOT announced that it would conduct a seven-month, $370,000 study to verify if the bridge could support a heavier upper deck that consisted of an expanded bicycle and pedestrian path. [363][365], The construction of the Brooklyn Bridge is detailed in numerous media sources, including David McCullough's 1972 book The Great Bridge[366] and Ken Burns's 1981 documentary Brooklyn Bridge. A seaman who had been hired to determine the height of the span, testified to the committee about the difficulties that ship masters would experience in bringing their ships under the bridge when it was completed. [4] A separate measurement of 5,989 feet (1,825 m) is sometimes given; this is the distance from the curb at Centre Street in Manhattan. It was designed by John Roebling. Eine Brücke ohne störende Pfeiler, die den Meeresarm weit über den Schiffsmasten in einer großen Spanne überquert, wäre die ideale Lösung gewesen, schien aber damals jenseits aller technischen Möglichkeiten zu sein. [26] It typically runs 4 feet (1.2 m) below the level of the crossbeams,[27] except at the areas surrounding each tower. [142] That July, the trustees decided to award a contract for 500 short tons (450 long tons) of Bessemer steel[143] to the Edgemoor (or Edge Moor) Iron Works, based in Philadelphia, to be delivered by 1880. [51][5] The Brooklyn side's caisson was built at the Webb & Bell shipyard in Greenpoint, Brooklyn, and was launched into the river on March 19, 1870. [287] Initially, the northern side of the promenade was used by pedestrians and the southern side by cyclists. Dazwischen ist ein Metallnetz waagrecht gespannt. [54][37] There were also proposals for tunnels under the East River, but these were considered prohibitively expensive. Die John A. Roebling's Sons Company. [179] The first person to jump from the bridge with the intention of suicide was Francis McCarey in 1892. [117][114] The temporary footbridge, located some 60 feet (18 m) above the elevation of the future deck, was completed in February 1877. This helped to lessen doubts about the bridge's stability while also promoting Barnum's circus. (It seems almost close enough to wave to the passengers on the Q train zooming across the East River!) Um ihre herausragende architektonische Stellung zu unterstreichen, wird die Brücke seit den 1980er Jahren nachts beleuchtet. [40] When iron probes underneath the Manhattan caisson found the bedrock to be even deeper than expected, Washington Roebling halted construction due to the increased risk of decompression sickness. [315], At 9:00 a.m. on May 19, 1977, artist Jack Bashkow climbed one of the towers for Bridging, a "media sculpture" by the performance group Art Corporation of America Inc. Die Brücke hat heute sechs Fahrstreifen sowie in der Ebene darüber einen breiten Fuß- und Radweg. [41] Starting in 1876,[42] in order to fund the bridge's maintenance, the New York City government made the large vaults under the bridge's Manhattan anchorage available for rent, and they were in constant use during the early 20th century. Während der Bauarbeiten auf der Brücke erlitt er einen Unfall und starb noch vor ihrer Fertigstellung an den Folgen des Unfalls. Entstanden ist die Brooklyn Bridge einst im Jahre 1883, als man eine sinnvolle Verbindung zwischen Manhattan und Brooklyn suchte. [12] The bridge has also been a New York City designated landmark since August 24, 1967,[2] and was designated a National Historic Civil Engineering Landmark in 1972. Diplomatic Changes", "The Brooklyn Bridge; Its Progress--The New-York Pier-Effects of the Compressed Air on the Workmen", "A brief history of diving and decompression illness", South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society Journal, "The Brooklyn Bridge; The Caisson Filled In", "Caisson disease during the construction of the Eads and Brooklyn Bridges: A review", "Mrs. Roebling's Skill; How the Wife of the Brooklyn Bridge Engineer Has Assisted Her Husband", "The Brooklyn Bridge; Annual Meeting of the Company", "The Brooklyn Bridge; Official Statement of the Progress of the Work--The Annual Meeting", "The East River Bridge; Completion of the Arches of the Brooklyn Pier the Work on the New-York Side", "The Bridge Tower; Its Practical Completion on the Brooklyn Side To-day", "The Brooklyn Bridge; Work on the Anchorage Commenced", "The Bridge; Completion of the Brooklyn Anchorage", "The Towers and the Anchorages Complete, and the Cables Ready", "The Suspension Bridge; Progress of the Great Work. Some larger clapper bridges, such as at Dartmeet and Bellever, have collapsed – their slabs swept away by floods, or raided for building or wall construction - and have since been rebuilt. [19][21], The main span and side spans are supported by a structure containing six trusses running parallel to the roadway,[22] each of which is 33 feet (10 m) deep. Er verfügte daraufhin nur noch über eingeschränktes Sprechvermögen und war auf einen Rollstuhl angewiesen. To protect against the increased air pressure at that depth, the Manhattan caisson had 22 layers of timber on its roof, seven more than its Brooklyn counterpart had. [286] As a result, in 2016, the NYCDOT announced that it planned to double the promenade's width. [218][219] Subsequently, Boerum Place from Fulton Street south to Atlantic Avenue was also widened. [273] After disputes, the trustees agreed to build two elevated routes to the bridge on the Brooklyn side. Die Fundamente der Türme reichen auf der Seite von Manhattan 23,7 m (78 ft) und 13,4 m (44 ft) auf der Seite von Brooklyn in den Boden. [161] The bridge opening was also attended by U.S. president Chester A. Arthur and New York mayor Franklin Edson, who crossed the bridge and shook hands with Brooklyn mayor Seth Low at the Brooklyn end. [189] Although a second deck for the Brooklyn Bridge was proposed, it was thought to be infeasible because doing so would overload the bridge's structural capacity. Die Brooklyn Bridge hat eine lichte Höhe von 41,15 m (135 ft) in der Mitte des leicht nach oben gewölbten Fahrbahnträgers. The towers' construction was a complex process that took four years. [53] It was launched from Webb & Bell's shipyard on May 11, 1871,[84][40] and maneuvered into place that September. Die Brücke hat heute sechs Fahrstreifen sowie in der Ebene darüber einen breiten Fuß- und Radweg. [9] A 1909 Engineering Magazine article said that, at the center of the span, the height above MHW could fluctuate by more than 9 feet (2.7 m) due to temperature and traffic loads, while more rigid spans had a lower maximum deflection.