[325] The Australian New Wave of filmmaking saw a resurgence in film production in the city–with many notable features shot in the city between the 1970s and 80s, helmed by directors such as Bruce Beresford, Peter Weir and Gillian Armstrong. As the wealth of the settlement increased, and as Sydney developed into a metropolis after Federation in 1901, its buildings became taller. Southern Sydney includes the suburbs in the local government areas of former Rockdale, Georges River Council (collectively known as the St George area), and broadly it also includes the suburbs in the local government area of Sutherland, south of the Georges River (colloquially known as 'The Shire'). [170] Another prominent park and garden in the west is Central Gardens Nature Reserve in Merrylands West. [101] Sydney experiences an urban heat island effect. [18][19][20] It is classified as an Alpha Global City by Globalization and World Cities Research Network, indicating its influence in the region and throughout the world. 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Charles Sturt University and Southern Cross University, both public universities, operate secondary campuses only designated for international students. Sydney is home to nine of the sixteen teams in the National Rugby League competition: Canterbury-Bankstown Bulldogs, Cronulla-Sutherland Sharks, Manly-Warringah Sea Eagles, Penrith Panthers, Parramatta Eels, South Sydney Rabbitohs, St George Illawarra Dragons, Sydney Roosters, and Wests Tigers. The event is attended by fashion journalists, magazine editors, bloggers and fashion buyers. [431], The WaterNSW now manages eleven major dams: Warragamba one of the largest domestic water supply dams in the world,[432] Woronora, Cataract, Cordeaux, Nepean, Avon, Wingecarribee Reservoir, Fitzroy Falls Reservoir, Tallowa, the Blue Mountains Dams, and Prospect Reservoir. In Sydney, there are many famous buildings: the Sydney Opera House, the Queen Victoria Building and the Sydney Harbour Bridge. "Aboriginal rock carvings of great antiquity in S.A.". [117][118] The El Niño–Southern Oscillation, the Indian Ocean Dipole and the Southern Annular Mode[119][120] play an important role in determining Sydney's weather patterns: drought and bushfire on the one hand, and storms and flooding on the other, associated with the opposite phases of the oscillation. The air quality was 11 times the hazardous level in some days,[406][407] even making it worse than New Delhi's,[408] where it was also compared to "smoking 32 cigarettes" by Associate Professor Brian Oliver, a respiratory diseases scientist at the University of Technology Sydney.[409]. [49], Officers and convicts alike faced starvation as supplies ran low and little could be cultivated from the land. A gold rush occurred in the colony in 1851, and over the next century, Sydney transformed from a colonial outpost into a major global cultural and economic centre. Proceedings 8th Australia New Zealand Conference on Geomechanics: Consolidating Knowledge. One-tenth of the state's population attended a New South Wales versus New Zealand rugby match in 1907. [177] Prospect Hill, a historically significant ridge in the west and the only area in Sydney with ancient volcanic activity,[178] is also listed on the NSW State Heritage Register. He raided farms until Governor Macquarie dispatched troops from the British Army 46th Regiment in 1816 and ended the conflict by killing 14 Indigenous Australians in a raid on their campsite.[56][57]. [375] The administration of healthcare across Sydney is handled by eight local health districts: Central Coast, Illawarra Shoalhaven, Sydney, Nepean Blue Mountains, Northern Sydney, South Eastern Sydney, South Western Sydney, and Western Sydney. These span up to about 11 km west of the CBD. [154], They include some of the most affluent and advantaged areas in the country, with some streets being amongst the most expensive in the world. It is based in a terrace house in Darlington owned by the University of Sydney. The first and only major convict uprising in Australian history suppressed under martial law, the rebellion ended in a battle fought between convicts and the colonial forces of Australia at Rouse Hill. [391] With a rate of 26.3%, Sydney has the highest utilisation of public transport for travel to work of any Australian capital city.[392]. [317] Watkin Tench's A Narrative of the Expedition to Botany Bay (1789) and A Complete Account of the Settlement at Port Jackson in New South Wales (1793) have remained the best-known accounts of life in early Sydney. Torok, S. and Nicholls, N. 1996. [411] Furthermore, the city also has the highest usage of public transport in an Australian city, at 27%–making it comparable with New York City, Shanghai and Berlin. [188] Greenway went on to design the Hyde Park Barracks in 1819 and the Georgian style St James's Church in 1824. [9], Sydney has many things to see and do. The city's New Year's Eve celebrations are the largest in Australia. Central and Circular Quay are transport hubs with ferry, rail, and bus interchanges. The suburb of Randwick contains the Randwick Racecourse, the Royal Hospital for Women, the Prince of Wales Hospital, Sydney Children's Hospital, and the UNSW Kensington Campus. [48] Between 1788 and 1792, convicts and their jailers made up the majority of the population; in one generation, however, a population of emancipated convicts who could be granted land began to grow. 7.8% of Sydney residents are attending primary school and 6.4% are enrolled in secondary school. Historically, rainfall has been fairly uniform throughout the year, although much recently it has been more summer-dominant. [132], The regions of Sydney include the CBD or City of Sydney (colloquially referred to as 'the City') and Inner West, the Eastern Suburbs, Southern Sydney (including St George and Sutherland Shire), Greater Western Sydney (including South Western Sydney, Hills District and the Macarthur Region), and Northern Sydney (including the North Shore and Northern Beaches). Precipitation is usually higher in late summer through to early winter when the subtropical ridge is to the south of Australia, permitting easterly winds to dominate, and lower in late winter to early spring when the subtropical ridge is to the north, as it brings dry winds from the continent's interior towards the city, since it rotates counter-clockwise. Sydney Theatre Company maintains a roster of local, classical, and international plays. It is bordered by Farm Cove within the Royal Botanic Garden to the east and Darling Harbour to the west. It has staged over 100,000 performances and received 100 million visitors since opening in 1973. [245], Wheat, gold, and other minerals became additional export industries towards the end of the 1800s. [148][149] The suburb of Paddington is a well known suburb for its streets of restored terrace houses, Victoria Barracks, and shopping including the weekly Oxford Street markets.[150]. It is made up of suburbs located within Ku-ring-gai and Hornsby Shire councils. [107][108] In late spring and summer, temperatures over 35 °C (95 °F) are not uncommon,[109] though hot, dry conditions are usually ended by a southerly buster,[110] a powerful southerly that brings gale winds and a rapid fall in temperature. [245] Significant capital began to flow into the city from the 1870s to finance roads, railways, bridges, docks, courthouses, schools and hospitals. Availability: <. Impressum Luca l ConCrafter (gleichzeitig verantwortlich für den Inhalt gem. [112][113] Due to the inland location, frost is recorded early in the morning in Western Sydney a few times in winter. [216] Green bans and heritage overlays have been in place since at least 1977 to protect Sydney's heritage after controversial demolitions in the 1970s led to an outcry from Sydneysiders to preserve the old and keep history intact, sufficiently balancing old and new architecture. Obyvatelé Sydney nemají v češtině jednoslovné pojmenování. North Sydney itself consists of a large commercial centre, with its own business centre, which contains the second largest concentration of high-rise buildings in Sydney, after the CBD. [200] The Queen Victoria Building was designed in Romanesque Revival fashion by George McRae and completed in 1898. [45] The colony was at first to be titled "New Albion" (after Albion, another name for Great Britain), but Phillip decided on "Sydney".The official proclamation and naming of the colony happened on 7 February 1788. [143], There is a long trend of gentrification amongst Sydney's inner suburbs. The Anzac Bridge spans Johnstons Bay and connects Rozelle to Pyrmont and the city, forming part of the Western Distributor. The Sydney Blue Sox contest the Australian Baseball League. These local government areas have elected councils which are responsible for functions delegated to them by the New South Wales Government.