Most of these ethnic groups are predominantly farmers and a majority of their populations are Muslims. Over two thirds of the population resides in Java, the center of the country's economic and political power. Its ethnic composition is characterized by variety, in fact wide variety, as the country contains hundreds of different ethnic groups and cultures. By 1950 it had reached 77 million. Ethnic groups in Indonesia – Indonesia is a large country with an area of 1,990,250 km² with various ethnic groups in it. Indonesia includes numerous ethnic, cultural and linguistic groups, some of which are related to each other. Batak societies are patriarchally organized around clans called Marga with fierce warriors guarding the clans. The population of Indonesia in 1900 was 38 million inhabitants. Most Papuans of the interior regions live in small communities and maintain a complex of dialects, customs, and social structures that is distinct from that of the coastal peoples. Sundanese people occupy mainly the western part of Indonesia and numbers approximately 40 million representing 15.5% of the total population. Sumatra. The Menadonese (Minahasan) of northern Celebes are also atypical in that they are a historically Hinduized, predominantly Christian coastal community. The first group, the historically Hinduized (but now primarily Muslim) wet-rice growers of inland Java, Madura, and Bali, make up nearly three-fifths of the national population. Indonesia’s islands are homes to a diverse ethnic and religious group which have given rise to a large number of cultural practices. Toraja, Sulawesi. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership, The archipelago: its prehistory and early historical records, The arrival of Hindu religious conceptions, Growth and impact of the Dutch East India Company, The French and the British in Java, 1806–15, Indonesia from the coup to the end of the New Order, Economic crisis, public unrest, and the fall of Suharto. Total Area of Indonesia is 1,919,440 sq km (Land Area: 1,826,440 sq … Other ethnic groups in Indonesia include Madurese, Betawi, Minangkabau, Buginese, Malay, and Bantenese. The culture of this ethnic group demonstrates concern for elegance and refinement, courtesy, emotional restraint, politeness and consciousness to one’s social status. Most of the smaller islands belong to larger groups, like the Moluccas (Spice Islands). But some of them also belive in some traditional beliefs such as Mali… Geography of Indonesia. Indigenous ethnic groups Best-fit genomic mixture proportions of Austronesians in Island Southeast Asia and their inferred population movements. They dominate the government, economy, culture, almost every sector. Most Javanese live in the densely settled, irrigated agricultural regions of central and eastern Java—the most populous parts of the country . The cities of Yogyakarta and Surakarta (Solo), in the centre of the island, are strongholds of Javanese culture and maintain traditional rulers, although these leaders have no real political power. Indonesia's motto "Unity in Diversity'" signifies the country's myriad of cultures and ethnicities with all its people living together largely in peace. Indonesia - Ethnic groups. Some of the people living in the mountainous interior regions have been relocated to coastal areas, but—unlike the coastal peoples—they do not usually engage in fishing activities. Away from the major cities and areas of dense population, there are significant variations from one valley to the next and almost from one village to the next. The latest count at the end of 1995 showed it had 195.3 million inhabitants. The people of the interior, such as the Asmat and the Dani, on the other hand, remained isolated for a longer period of time. The largest economy in Southeast Asia, Indonesia – a diverse archipelago nation of more than 300 ethnic groups – has charted impressive economic growth since overcoming the Asian financial crisis of … The third largest ethnicity is Batak from North Sumatra with 8.5 million people, accounting … By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Accordingly, Java is one of the most densely populated islands on earth. Those in the foothills and on the coast have affinities with other Melanesian cultures to the east and south of New Guinea. Batak. The most prominent of the swiddeners are the Toraja of southern Celebes, the Batak of the highlands of northern Sumatra, and the various communities of the interior of Kalimantan, such as the Kenyah, Kayan, Ngaju, and Embaloh, who officially (and collectively) are called Dayak. In terms of number and influence, nothing comes before Javanese (42% of the population) as the most prominent ethnic group in Indonesia. Pura Ulun, a Hindu temple on the bank of Lake Bratan, Bali, Indonesia. The islands are populated by a number of distinct ethnic groups. The following demographic statistics are from the CIA World Factbook, unless otherwise indicated. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Indonesia is linguistically extremely diverse. Hi Guys, Thanks fo visiting Channel Youtube channel in This Channel we are exploring The Tndonesian Culture, Traditional Hairlom, Heritages, Art and Ancient Temple all over indonesia.. enjoy.. Four of the 16 groups of the Malayo-Polynesian family are Malayan. In many cases the highland groups of the larger islands—Borneo, Sumatra, and Celebes—were relatively untouched by international influences until the arrival of Christian missionaries during the 19th century; these upland peoples continue to reflect great cultural diversity. West of Java, the majority language group is the Malayo-Polynesian family of more than 250 languages, usually distinguished into 16 major groups. The Javanese constitute Indonesia’s largest ethnic group, accounting for roughly one-third of the total population. Javanese are also found in Malaysia, South Africa, Netherland, and Singapore. The diverse ethnic populations of western Indonesia generally may be grouped into three broad categories. Other ethnic groups in Indonesia include Madurese, Betawi, Minangkabau, Buginese, Malay, and Bantenese. Of the historically Hinduized communities in Indonesia, the Balinese are the only nonimmigrant practitioners of Hinduism. Visit the UNICEF websitefor some very interesting statistics covering population, health… In addition, Indonesians from the western islands have mixed with indigenous peoples in the coastal trading settlements. The country is sandwiched between Pacific and Indian Oceans. Batak’s major occupation is agriculture, fishing, and hunting. Java. Batak. Lombok. Indonesians are characterized by smallness of stature, light to dark-brown pigmentation, thick, sleek black hair, broad formation of … The Republic of Indonesia, the world’s largest island, is located in Southeast Asia with part of its territory in the Oceania. Ethnicity used to be a political taboo in Indonesia, a country with more than 600 ethnic groups, but this has changed since the advent of the Reform era (1998). Javanese values are promoted by cultural expressions such as dance, batik, gamelan, and wayang. Java’s western region, including the city of Bandung, is the homeland of the Sundanese, who are related to but quite distinct from the Javanese in language and tradition. While there may be hundreds of ethnicities in Indonesia, one dwarfs the rest. Sulawesi. The Minangkabau, a community of devout Muslim wet-rice farmers in west-central Sumatra, hold a unique position in Indonesia as a matrilineal society, whereby inheritance and descent are reckoned through the female line. Indonesia is home to over 300 ethnic groups and 742 different dialects. Indonesia has more than 13 islands with an estimated population of 237.6 million people spread across the islands. There is ethnic-based violence in Indonesia. Most of these ethnic groups are predominantly farmers and a majority of their populations are Muslims. Dutch policy allowed proselytization by Protestants and Catholics among separate groups who followed traditional religions; thus today many ethnic groups are exclusively Protestant or Roman Catholic. The Makassarese and Bugis have a pronounced presence in coastal towns throughout Indonesia, although their influence has been strongest outside Java. There are underlying issues of political and economic power. The largest economy in Southeast Asia, Indonesia – a diverse archipelago nation of more than 300 ethnic groups – has charted impressive economic growth since overcoming the … Geography - note. This name is a collective theme to identify some ethnic groups who live and come from the West Coast and the East Coast in North Sumatra Province. You also begin throughout Indonesia to get real resentment of local indigenous populations to the transmigration policies of the Suharto government, which often meant moving Muslim Javanese into areas where another ethnic group was dominant and this led to competition for land, resources, and eventually for power. The majority of these sub-groups are Muslims while a minority identify with Christianity. The local inhabitant highlands of the island of central Sulawesi, Toraja tribe are … As released by IDN times in 2016, some bad effects from the stereotype are the battle among other groups. The territory of the Republic of Indonesia stretches from 6°08′ N latitude to 11°15′ S latitude, and from 94°45′ E to 141°05′ E longitude. Indonesia was formerly known as the Dutch East Indies (or Netherlands East Indies). We Javanese are considered as polite, smooth-speaking people. These ethnic groups include; Javanese people are the largest ethnic group in Indonesia with a population of over 100 million (40.2%) according to the 2011 census. These ethnic groups each account for at least 2% of the country’s population. These are the inland wet-rice (irrigated rice) societies, the coastal trading, farming, and fishing peoples, and the inland societies of shifting cultivators. The majority of the population (58%) lives in Java Island. As early as the 1st century the population was estimated at 2 million people in this rich tropical environment. The glue that binds the people together is the usage of the Bahasa Indonesia, the national language, and Pancasila, the national philosophy, which stresses the doctrine of unity and universal justice for all Indonesians. Most Javanese live in the densely settled, irrigated agricultural regions of central and eastern Java—the most populous parts of the country. 3) In addition there are many cultural influences stemming back from difference in heritage. Indonesia's motto "Unity in Diversity'" signifies the country's myriad of cultures and ethnicities with all its people living together largely in peace. Indonesia Religion, Economy and Politics. As this is well over 90 million people, that means that the Javanese are used to living in tight quarters! How Many Serial Killers Are Active In The UK Now? Batak is a collective name for ethnic groups including Alas, Kluet, Toba, Mandailing, Pakpak, and Karo. Since independence, Indonesian (a form of Malay and the official national language) is the language of most written communication, education, government, and business. The indigenous peoples, ethnologically referred to as Malays or Indonesians, also are found on the neighboring islands of the Philippines, in Peninsular Malaysia, and even as far away as Taiwan and Madagascar. The distinction between coastal and interior peoples is especially salient in western New Guinea, where maritime trading communities live along the coast, while agrarian, noncommercial societies with strongly developed and highly localized customs inhabit the interior. Indonesia has more than 300 distinct ethnic and linguistic groups, although the largest and most dominant in terms of politics are the Javanese at over 40% of the population. The island of Madura, northeast of Java, is the homeland of the Madurese, Indonesia’s third largest ethnic group. Indonesia was formerly known as the Dutch East Indies (or Netherlands East Indies). Family portrait, Tana Toraja; People of Angguruk, Papua; People from Waur, Kei Besar, Maluku; The ethnic diversity of Indonesia may be staggering, but the demography is dominated by a few main groups (more details in this article) All maps, graphics, flags, photos and original descriptions © 2021 worldatlas.com, Largest Ethnic Groups And Nationalities In The United States, 10 Countries Where Women Far Outnumber Men, The Most Famous Serial Killers In America And Their Twisted Crimes. Indonesia also has the largest diaspora with over 8 million people spread across the world especially in countries such as Malaysia, UAE, US, Saudi Arabia, South Korea and Australia. The Makassarese and Bugis live primarily in the coastal regions of southern Celebes. Geography - note. Major ethnic groups include Javanese, Sundanese, Madurese and Malay. As one of the most ethnically diverse societies, Indonesia consists of 1,300 ethnic groups with at least 95 percent native to the archipelago. Ethnic Groups in Indonesia. On bad side, Javanese are tend to hide our true feeling, we talk about people behind them, and one day — the emotions are exploding like an erupting volcano. 9.87% are Christian, 1.69% are Hindu, 0.72% are Buddhist and 0.56% practice other faiths. The Sundanese are the second largest ethnic group in Indonesia. How Many Serial Killers Are On The Loose Today? This section zooms in on the people of Indonesia. They identify with the bilateral kinship system that considers both male and female equally important in the society. The tribes that are categorized as Batak are: Batak Toba, Batak Karo, Batak Pakpak, Batak Simalungun, Batak Angkola, and Batak Mandailing. Each island or group of islands east of Java also has maintained its own distinct character, in many cases strongly influenced by different religions. There are thousands of ethnic identities in Indonesia and people identify quite strongly with their roots. Maluku is the place of Indonesia where the population seems the most mixed. The Moluccas reflect this pattern, although their proximity to the western islands makes them a more complex ethnographic and linguistic area. Jakarta. In some areas of the country the conflicts between ethnic groups are more pronounced and, as we have seen in the news of recent years, quite brutal and violent. Borneo. The barriers of the mountains and the sea have protected the character and traditions of many groups. The second group, the more strongly Islamized coastal peoples, is ethnically heterogeneous and includes the Malays from Sumatra and, from southern Celebes, the Makassarese and Bugis. Batak tribe is one of the largest ethnic groups in Indonesia. Their language has heavily influenced the Indonesian language, while like many other Indonesians, they follow a heavily adapted version of Islam that is dependent on l… 4) Although Indonesia has the largest Muslim population in the world it also has a large number of Christian Protestants, Catholics, Hindus and … Indonesia - Ethnic groups Photo by: erwinova The indigenous peoples, ethnologically referred to as Malays or Indonesians, also are found on the neighboring islands of the Philippines, in Peninsular Malaysia, and even as far away as Taiwan and Madagascar. The ethnic group has borrowed a lot of its culture from the Javanese except for the less rigid systems. Typical of the coastal peoples are the Ambonese, who live along the coasts of Ambon and neighbouring islands, including western Ceram. Bali. Europe Map. Like most Indonesian peoples, they are rice farmers; however, they are also maritime peoples with a strong tradition of boat making. The fact that the army (known as ABRI) high command still holds real power behind the new president, B.J. As one of the most ethnically diverse societies, Indonesia consists of 1,300 ethnic groups with at least 95 percent native to the archipelago. However, more than half of the population can be classified as belonging to two main ethnic groups. Indonesia Ethnic groups. Types Of Crimes By Number Of Offenses In The US, The 10 Biggest Shopping Malls In The World. The Batak value education and prominent professional positions especially doctors, teachers, lawyers, and engineers. Ethnic groups are a group of people who have something in common between one member and another. New Guinea. The ethnic group is largely agricultural with rice being the main crop cultivated. Indonesia is a culturally very diverse nation. The population growth rate is 1.9% and a relatively young population with an average median age of 28.1 years. Javanese culture flourished in Indonesia and the oldest civilization that has been influenced by other cultures over time. Batam. To make matter worse, due to these perceptions cling to particular groups, it then triggers riot and encourages tension among ethnic groups in Indonesia. These ethnic groups are found mainly in the North Sumatra in Indonesia. Usually the similarity is in terms of heredity, language, biological characteristics, or behavior and culture. The third group, the inland shifting cultivators, plant swiddens—fields that are cleared, cultivated for a few seasons, and then abandoned for several years to allow the soil to regenerate—in areas where the climate will not support wet-rice farming.