Euro und die anderen Euro-Länder 77 Mrd. Germany re-expanded and took back the Saarland and Rhineland in 1935 and 1936. Economic instability, caused in part by debts incurred in the First World War and 'loans' to Germany played havoc in Europe in the late 1920s and 1930s. "The Muslims in Europe". The northern plain contains the old geological continent of Baltica, and so may be regarded geologically as the "main continent", while peripheral highlands and mountainous regions in the south and west constitute fragments from various other geological continents. Die Einfuhren stammen zu 76 % aus EU-Mitgliedstaaten (Spanien 31 %, Deutschland 14 % und Frankreich 8 %). The semi-arid Mediterranean region hosts much scrub forest. [144][145][146] Discontent with the aristocracy and clergy's monopoly on political power in France resulted in the French Revolution and the establishment of the First Republic as a result of which the monarchy and many of the nobility perished during the initial reign of terror. Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. In May 1940, Germany attacked France through the Low Countries. Karlo Ruzicic-Kessler "Togliatti, Tito and the Shadow of Moscow 1944/45-1948: Post-War Territorial Disputes and the Communist World", In: Journal of European Integration History, (2/2014). [148][149] Napoleonic rule resulted in the further dissemination of the ideals of the French Revolution, including that of the nation-state, as well as the widespread adoption of the French models of administration, law, and education. Biodiversity is protected in Europe through the Council of Europe's Bern Convention, which has also been signed by the European Community as well as non-European states. The geological history of Europe traces back to the formation of the Baltic Shield (Fennoscandia) and the Sarmatian craton, both around 2.25 billion years ago, followed by the Volgo–Uralia shield, the three together leading to the East European craton (≈ Baltica) which became a part of the supercontinent Columbia. There is huge disparity between many European countries in terms of their income. May 2018; Harry de Wilt: Is One Belt, One Road a China crisis for North Sea main ports? [213] The Gulf Stream is nicknamed "Europe's central heating", because it makes Europe's climate warmer and wetter than it would otherwise be. Through monasteries and cathedral schools, the Church was responsible for education in much of Europe. The public debt to GDP ratio in 2014 was 177% of GDP or €317 billion. Europe has become a relatively secular continent, with an increasing number and proportion of irreligious, atheist and agnostic people, who make up about 18.2% of Europe's population,[285] currently the largest secular population in the Western world. ", UN predicts huge migration to rich countries, Rich world needs more foreign workers: report, "Europe: Population and Migration in 2005", EU27 Member States granted citizenship to 696 000 persons in 2008, "Migration and migrant population statistics", "A pena do degredo nas Ordenações do Reino", "Ensaio sobre a imigração portuguesa e os padrões de miscigenação no Brasil", "The Columbian Mosaic in Colonial America", "Work in progress: Indirect passage from Europe Transmigration via the UK, 1836–1914", Language facts – European day of languages, "Istanbul one of four anchor megacities of Europe: Research", "Major Agglomerations of the World - Population Statistics and Maps", "Regional Distribution of Christians: Christianity in Europe", accessed 8 December 2014. p. 1: "Western civilization owes far more to Catholic Church than most people – Catholic included – often realize. There were numerous invasions and migrations amongst the Ostrogoths, Visigoths, Goths, Vandals, Huns, Franks, Angles, Saxons, Slavs, Avars, Bulgars and, later on, the Vikings, Pechenegs, Cumans and Magyars. The climate is more oceanic in the west, and less so in the east. Politically, Europe is divided into about fifty sovereign states, of which Russia is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. [15] The EU originated in Western Europe but has been expanding eastward since the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991. Between the 16th and 20th centuries, European powers colonized at various times the Americas, almost all of Africa and Oceania, and the majority of Asia. [255] According to some sources,[256] this rate is higher among Muslims in Europe. [266], Today, large populations of European descent are found on every continent. The Mariner's mirror, Volumes 76–77. [112] The plague is thought to have returned every generation with varying virulence and mortalities until the 18th century. Capitalism has been dominant in the Western world since the end of feudalism. Statistics Explained is an official Eurostat website presenting statistical topics in an easily understandable way. The Romanians and the Turkic Nomads North of the Danube Delta from the Tenth to the Mid-Thirteenth Century, Brill, 2009. The UN predicts a steady population decline in Central and Eastern Europe as a result of emigration and low birth rates. As a continent, the economy of Europe is currently the largest on Earth and it is the richest region as measured by assets under management with over $32.7 trillion compared to North America's $27.1 trillion in 2008. ... EU-Länder, in denen der Euro verwendet wird. With tensions mounting between Germany and Poland over the future of Danzig, the Germans turned to the Soviets, and signed the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, which allowed the Soviets to invade the Baltic states and parts of Poland and Romania. [150][151][152] The Congress of Vienna, convened after Napoleon's downfall, established a new balance of power in Europe centred on the five "Great Powers": the UK, France, Prussia, Austria, and Russia. Sub-regions like Iceland, Britain, and Ireland are special cases. (Michael Adams, Trans. Germanic languages are spoken in Western, Northern and Central Europe as well as in Gibraltar and Malta in Southern Europe. The rise of a new humanism was accompanied by the recovery of forgotten classical Greek and Arabic knowledge from monastic libraries, often translated from Arabic into Latin. In the mid 7th century CE, following the Muslim conquest of Persia, Islam penetrated into the Caucasus region. Few corners of mainland Europe have not been grazed by livestock at some point in time, and the cutting down of the pre-agricultural forest habitat caused disruption to the original plant and animal ecosystems. 27 European states are members of the politico-economic European Union, 26 of the border-free Schengen Area and 19 of the monetary union Eurozone. Helped by the economic crisis, social instability and the threat of communism, fascist movements developed throughout Europe placing Adolf Hitler in power of what became Nazi Germany.[180][181]. Maltese is the only Semitic language that is official within the EU, while Basque is the only European language isolate. ", Economic and Monetary Union of the European Union, Post-Napoleonic Irish grain price and land use shocks, Global financial crisis in September 2008, 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami stock market crash, 2015–2016 Chinese stock market turbulence, List of stock market crashes and bear markets, Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople,, Articles with dead external links from January 2018, Articles with permanently dead external links, Pages containing links to subscription-only content, CS1 maint: DOI inactive as of January 2021, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia articles in need of updating from December 2019, All Wikipedia articles in need of updating, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2018, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2019, Articles with failed verification from May 2020, Wikipedia articles in need of updating from April 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2015, Articles with failed verification from July 2015, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2016, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from July 2018, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Homo erectus georgicus, which lived roughly 1.8 million years ago in Georgia, is the earliest hominin to have been discovered in Europe. Members of the European Parliament (MEPs) are elected by the population of the member states of the European Union (EU). World War II, again, damaged much of Europe's industries. Spinei, Victor. From that time, the term designated the sphere of influence of the Western Church, as opposed to both the Eastern Orthodox churches and to the Islamic world. The hegemony of the vast Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth had ended with the devastation brought by the Second Northern War (Deluge) and subsequent conflicts;[139] the state itself was partitioned and ceased to exist at the end of the 18th century.[140]. The mapmakers continued to differ on the boundary between the lower Don and Samara well into the 19th century. Christian culture was the predominant force in western civilisation, guiding the course of philosophy, art, and science. At the same time decolonisation, which had already started after World War I, gradually resulted in the independence of most of the European colonies in Asia and Africa. In 1949 the Council of Europe was founded, following a speech by Sir Winston Churchill, with the idea of unifying Europe to achieve common goals. [19] Next to these hypotheses there is also a Proto-Indo-European root *h1regʷos, meaning "darkness", which also produced Greek Erebus. Around 190 million years ago, Gondwana and Laurasia split apart due to the widening of the Atlantic Ocean. Different cultural events are organised in Europe, with the aim of bringing different cultures closer together and raising awareness of their importance, such as the European Capital of Culture, the European Region of Gastronomy, the European Youth Capital and the European Capital of Sport. Further European integration by some states led to the formation of the European Union (EU), a separate political entity that lies between a confederation and a federation. [16] An alternative view is that of R.S.P. Multilingualism and the protection of regional and minority languages are recognised political goals in Europe today. However, his idea to use major rivers almost exclusively as the line of demarcation was never taken up by other geographers. The emphasis placed on resurrecting the West German economy led to it overtaking the UK as Europe's largest economy. Therefore, the average temperature throughout the year of Aveiro is 16 °C (61 °F), while it is only 13 °C (55 °F) in New York City which is almost on the same latitude, bordering the same ocean. Mountain ridges also affect the conditions. [75] Between 711 and 720, most of the lands of the Visigothic Kingdom of Iberia was brought under Muslim rule — save for small areas in the northwest (Asturias) and largely Basque regions in the Pyrenees. [77] Charlemagne, a Frankish king of the Carolingian dynasty who had conquered most of Western Europe, was anointed "Holy Roman Emperor" by the Pope in 800. The EU established a parliament, court and central bank and introduced the euro as a unified currency. Structural change in Europe´s geo-economy." [174], The social revolutions sweeping through Russia also affected other European nations following The Great War: in 1919, with the Weimar Republic in Germany, and the First Austrian Republic; in 1922, with Mussolini's one party fascist government in the Kingdom of Italy, and in Atatürk's Turkish Republic, adopting the Western alphabet, and state secularism. 1999. [127][128][129][130], The Church's power was further weakened by the Protestant Reformation in 1517 when German theologian Martin Luther nailed his Ninety-five Theses criticising the selling of indulgences to the church door. "Europe" as used specifically in British English may also refer to Continental Europe exclusively.[27]. The currency of most countries of the European Union, the euro, is the most commonly used among Europeans; and the EU's Schengen Area abolishes border and immigration controls between most of its member states and some non-members states. After World War II the economy of the UK was in a state of ruin,[238] and continued to suffer relative economic decline in the following decades. Eastern Europe, Central Asia and Siberia). EU har även ett system för så kallad tidig varning, som aktiveras innan det är aktuellt med ett artikel 7-förfarande. The question of defining a precise eastern boundary of Europe arises in the Early Modern period, as the eastern extension of Muscovy began to include North Asia. The Neanderthals were supplanted by modern humans (Cro-Magnons), who appeared in Europe around 43,000 to 40,000 years ago. [189] More than 40 million people in Europe had died as a result of World War II,[190] including between 11 and 17 million people who perished during the Holocaust. The Berlin blockade in 1948 and 1949 and the construction of the Berlin Wall in 1961 were one of the great international crises of the Cold War. 76 % der Ausfuhren Portugals gehen in EU-Länder (Spanien 25 %, Frankreich 13 % und Deutschland 11 %); unter den Nicht-EU-Ländern sind die USA (5 % der Ausfuhren) und Angola (3 %) die wichtigsten Handelspartner. [153] This balance would remain in place until the Revolutions of 1848, during which liberal uprisings affected all of Europe except for Russia and the UK. .eu, . All have over 10 million residents,[269] and as such have been described as megacities. This extended lowland is known as the Great European Plain, and at its heart lies the North German Plain. [275], Christianity, including the Roman Catholic Church,[276][277] has played a prominent role in the shaping of Western civilisation since at least the 4th century,[278][279][280][281] and for at least a millennium and a half, Europe has been nearly equivalent to Christian culture, even though the religion was inherited from the Middle East. [220] It stretched from the Mediterranean Sea to the Arctic Ocean. Euro, 2005 etwa 1,3 Mrd. A distinct non-Indo-European family of Uralic languages (Estonian, Finnish, Hungarian, Erzya, Komi, Mari, Moksha, and Udmurt) is spoken mainly in Estonia, Finland, Hungary, and parts of Russia. [56] The Minoans were followed by the Myceneans, who collapsed suddenly around 1200 BCE, ushering the European Iron Age. These two halves are separated by the mountain chains of the Pyrenees and Alps/Carpathians. The Treaty of Versailles, which officially ended World War I in 1919, was harsh towards Germany, upon whom it placed full responsibility for the war and imposed heavy sanctions. Cultural contacts and mixtures shape a large part of the regional cultures of Europe. The Age of Enlightenment, the subsequent French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars shaped the continent culturally, politically and economically from the end of the 17th century until the first half of the 19th century. From the 7th century onwards, as the Byzantines and neighbouring Sasanid Persians were severely weakened due to the protracted, centuries-lasting and frequent Byzantine–Sasanian wars, the Muslim Arabs began to make inroads into historically Roman territory, taking the Levant and North Africa and making inroads into Asia Minor. Thomas E. Woods and Antonio Canizares, 2012, "How the Catholic Church Built Western Civilization," Reprint edn., Washington, DC: Regnery History, single federation encompassing much of the continent, Boundaries between the continents of Earth, states which straddle the border between Europe and Asia, England tried unsuccessfully to invade Spain, German-speakers from all over Eastern Europe, List of sovereign states and dependent territories in Europe, Area and population of European countries, Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelia, List of sovereign states in Europe by GDP (nominal), List of sovereign states in Europe by GDP (PPP), Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities, European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages, List of sovereign states by date of formation, Names of European cities in different languages, List of European cities by population within city limits, Largest urban areas of the European Union, Financial and social rankings of European countries, List of European countries by GDP (nominal), United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, "The European union—a federation or a confederation? [217] Languages in adjacent areas show significant overlaps (such as in English, for example). ", territories lying geographically outside Europe, "Boundary of Europe and Asia along Urals", Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary, "Bones reveal Neanderthal child was eaten by a giant bird", "The genome sequence of a 45,000-year-old modern human from western Siberia", Hundred Years' War: Joan of Arc and the Siege of Orléans, "Epidemics of the Past: Bubonic Plague —", "Black Death blamed on man, not rats | UK news | The Observer", Science and Theology Since Copernicus: The Search for Understanding, "European History/Religious Wars in Europe", Scientific Revolution: Chronological Timeline: Copernicus to Newton. [29] Europe's eastern frontier was defined in the 1st century by geographer Strabo at the River Don. The British hoped to land at Narvik and send troops to aid Finland, but their primary objective in the landing was to encircle Germany and cut the Germans off from Scandinavian resources. ", "Europe's Bogeyman: 'There Is No Doubt Germanophobia Exists, "Fearful Germans add to Greece's woes by staying away in droves", "Germany offers fund to defuse Greek war reparation claims", "As Germans Push Austerity, Greeks Press Nazi-Era Claims",, "Tsipras says Greece won't go back to old spending ways", "IMF 'to admit mistakes' in handling Greek debt crisis and bailout", "For hard-hit Greeks, IMF mea culpa comes too late", "IMF admits disastrous love affair with the euro and apologises for the immolation of Greece", "Why Three Rescues Didn't Solve Greece's Debt Problem", "Debt deal exceeded market expectations, Tsipras says", "Pavlopoulos to Moscovici: the mistakes that lead to painful sacrifices for the Greek people should not be repeated", "UpFront – Reality Check: Are the Greeks all that lazy? More recently, the Eurasian Economic Union has been established as a counterpart comprising former Soviet states. [2][3] The European climate is largely affected by warm Atlantic currents that temper winters and summers on much of the continent, even at latitudes along which the climate in Asia and North America is severe. [156] Formal recognition of the de facto independent principalities of Montenegro, Serbia and Romania ensued at the Congress of Berlin in 1878. [167] Over 60 million European soldiers were mobilised from 1914 to 1918. Among the smaller European organisations are the Nordic Council, the Benelux, the Baltic Assembly and the Visegrád Group. The former is a land unto itself in the northern ocean which is counted as part of Europe, while the latter are upland areas that were once joined to the mainland until rising sea levels cut them off. Michael A. Barry finds the mention of the word Ereb on an Assyrian stele with the meaning of "night, [the country of] sunset", in opposition to Asu "[the country of] sunrise", i.e. This shared cultural heritage is combined by overlapping indigenous national cultures and folklores, roughly divided into Slavic, Latin (Romance) and Germanic, but with several components not part of either of these group (notably Greek, Basque and Celtic). The four largest urban areas of Europe are Istanbul, Moscow, Paris and London. A cultural definition of Europe as the lands of Latin Christendom coalesced in the 8th century, signifying the new cultural condominium created through the confluence of Germanic traditions and Christian-Latin culture, defined partly in contrast with Byzantium and Islam, and limited to northern Iberia, the British Isles, France, Christianised western Germany, the Alpine regions and northern and central Italy. The Industrial Revolution, which began in Great Britain at the end of the 18th century, gave rise to radical economic, cultural and social change in Western Europe and eventually the wider world. A year later England tried unsuccessfully to invade Spain, allowing Philip II of Spain to maintain his dominant war capacity in Europe. [84], The Papacy reached the height of its power during the High Middle Ages. [37] This was endorsed by the Russian Empire, and introduced the convention that would eventually become commonly accepted, but not without criticism by many modern analytical geographers like Halford Mackinder who saw little validity in the Ural Mountains as a boundary between continents.[38]. The model of the Blue Banana was designed as an economic geographic representation of the respective economic power of the regions, which was further developed into the Golden Banana or Blue Star. [252] The population of Europe has grown in the past century, but in other areas of the world (in particular Africa and Asia) the population has grown far more quickly. In 1933, Hitler became the leader of Germany and began to work towards his goal of building Greater Germany. The Umayyads were then defeated by the Frankish leader Charles Martel at the Battle of Poitiers in 732, which ended their northward advance. Probably 80 to 90 percent of Europe was once covered by forest. [257], Europe is home to the highest number of migrants of all global regions at 70.6 million people, the IOM's report said. Once they were found in most parts of Europe. Statistics Explained, your guide to European statistics. August 1989 war ein Test für Gorbatschows“ (German - August 19, 1989 was a test for Gorbachev), In: FAZ 19 August 2009. EU-Länder, in denen der Euro nicht verwendet wird. [246] In 2010, fears of a sovereign debt crisis[247] developed concerning some countries in Europe, especially Greece, Ireland, Spain, and Portugal. Economic growth, together with the lack of safety on the mainland trading routes, made possible the development of major commercial routes along the coast of the Mediterranean and Baltic Seas. The boundaries of Europe were historically understood as those of Christendom (or more specifically Latin Christendom), as established or defended throughout the medieval and early modern history of Europe, especially against Islam, as in the Reconquista and the Ottoman wars in Europe.[272].