The most popular type of stone used in carving was pounamu (greenstone), a form of jade, but other kinds were also used, especially in the North Island, where pounamu was not widely available. The art was a sacred activity accompanied by many rites and rituals. [47] Māori were significantly impacted by changing economic circumstances such as the drop in wool prices. [63][citation not found], Gift exchange was governed by three basic principles. For decades, European missionaries, mostly living in the north of the North Island, had very little influence over Māori behaviour. – Economic history – Te Ara Encyclopedia of New Zealand", "1. Māori is one of the three official languages in New Zealand. Kūmara was an important crop that arrived with the Polynesian settlers. – Tūranga i te hapori – status in Māori society – Te Ara Encyclopedia of New Zealand", "Colonisation effect on ending Maori slavery overstated, says author", "Mocking the haka: The Haka Party Incident and 'casual' racism in New Zealand", "Bastion Point protesters evicted | NZHistory, New Zealand history online", "3. [191], From the time of their arrival in New Zealand, Māori lived in tribes that functioned independently under the leadership of their own chiefs. It was also intended to establish a system of law and order in Māori communities to which the Auckland government had so far shown little interest. [9], Polynesian seafarers were ocean navigators and astronomers. The paper mulberry was introduced from the tropical Pacific by Māori, who knew it as aute,[103] but it failed to flourish in New Zealand's cooler climate, and bark cloth (tapa) was rare. Carving is a tapu art, subject to the rules and laws of tapu, and traditionally performed by men only;[75] women were not permitted near te toi whakairo. [156][157], Historian Paul Moon writes of reports by missionaries of families forcing some of their young girls into the sex trade with the object of obtaining valuable and scarce English goods in the 1820s. Christianity. The North Island had an extensive network of single lane one metre wide tracks that traversed beaches, plains, valleys and mountain passes. A key element of cultural leadership is to link the narrator to a well known historical figure with mana (prestige/authority power). [44] European farmers who owned their land freehold mechanised to gain higher productivity, using bank loans for the new equipment. They could be both rowed and sailed. The history of individual tribal groups is kept by means of narratives, songs and chants, hence the importance of music, story and poetry. The introduction of foreign weeds which thrived was a significant issue from the 1820s but offset by the widespread growth of the introduced potato, the traditional varieties of which are still grown and known as taewa or Māori potatoes. [8] Anthropologists believe that all Polynesians descend from a South Pacific proto-culture developed by an Austronesian (Malayo-Polynesian) people who had migrated from southeastern Asia. The introduction of rats undoubtedly had more impact on New Zealand wildlife than any other organism apart from humans. Heating was provided by a small open fire in winter. King describes this as a "fantasy contagion-the realty did not live up to the myth but this did not stop the fantasy or the migration". Some surviving whakairo, or carvings, are over 500 years old. Māori artifacts began to change around the 15th century from an East Polynesian style to one more recognisably "classic" Māori,[21] a style which persisted well into the contact period in the 18th and 19th centuries. Māori customs Whether you’re a visitor to NZ or you live here, it’s important to be aware of Māori customs and how to interact in Māori culture. Keep browsing if you're happy with this. In the 19th century settlements were hapū-based, and 5 buildings became standardised: the sleeping whare, kauta or communal cookhouse/shelter, whata or wood store, pataka or storehouse, and increasingly from the 1870s wharepuni or community meeting house. 46.—Uhi, or chisels in the British Museum (actual size). Historian Angela Ballara describes warfare as a "learned, culturally determined [response] to offences against the rules of Māori society. See our Privacy Policy and Cookie Policy to understand how you can manage cookies. Māori are the indigenous people of New Zealand Aoteroa.Te Reo (the Māori language) is an official language of the country, along with English and New Zealand Sign Language.In the 2013 New Zealand census, nearly 700,000 people living in New Zealand were of Māori descent (more than one in seven of us).While the best way to learn about Māori culture is to experience it first hand, Te Ara - The Encyclopedia of New Zealand - has some excellent reading. Gift-giving was a different matter in Māori culture. Much of the activity to produce kūmara became ritualised – it was even associated[by whom?] [134], The most appropriate venue for any Māori cultural event is a marae, which is an enclosed area of land where a meeting house or wharenui (literally "big house") stands. Tapu sustains structure and social order. They tried to discourage polygamy. Together, they keep the harmony of things. In the 13 century, the first Māori voyaged from East … [62] However, the means by which this is accomplished may vary greatly by case. Contact with Europeans enabled Māori to access the material culture of Great Britain, then the most advanced industrial country in the world. This made Māori more vulnerable to economic and social deprivation. In 1955, the Māori birth rate was nearly double the European rate at 43.6 compared to 26 per 1000. It can be seen as a legal or religious concept, that is centred on the idea of being "forbidden" and "sacred." In the concept of utu, a fault must always be corrected and a kindness repaid. Performing arts or kapa haka, which incorporate harmonious singing, rhythmic dancing, and Māori dances such as the haka, are a must-see for any visitor. Find out more about the traditions and customs on a marae. [15] (Kūmara featured in some whakataukī (proverbs): "Kaore te kūmara e kōrero mo tōna māngaro" (the kūmara does not speak of its own sweetness) encouraged people to be modest. Since the end of the 19th century, traditional clothing is only used on ceremonial occasions.[119]. The family may often hold or display photos of the deceased or important ancestors. Karakia are traditional Māori incantations and prayers, used to invoke spiritual guidance and protection such as the blessing of a house, for safe travels, before the preparation of food. Educated urban Māori advocated the teaching of Māori language and the inclusion of a Māori point of view in all aspects of education. The standard practice of tohunga was to isolate the victim in a small shelter. Her son Tūheitia is the current king. The introduction of European foods changed many aspects of Māori agriculture. Te Kahui Mana Ririki has commissioned research into traditional Māori parenting in order to tackle child abuse in the Māori community.[165][166]. However, the term was often used by Māori to express the idea of political rights for all Māori, not just the rangatira class, or the idea of Māori sovereignty or Māori independence. This was rare before 1834 but became increasingly common as more Māori worked as sailors on European ships, where they gained a good reputation as being strong capable workers. Māori were generally very curious about European culture after initial misunderstandings and apprehension - Māori showed great ability to accept changes and to integrate these into their normal way of life[29][30][citation not found] The French expedition of Marion du Fresne, who visited Aotearoa in 1772, gave northern Māori potatoes, wheat, onions, goats, pigs, chickens and other food to raise. [citation needed] The most current reliable evidence strongly indicates that initial settlement of New Zealand occurred around 1280 CE[10] from the Society Islands. [126] Sidney Moko Mead wrote Tikanga Maori: Living by Māori Values, which provides a thorough introduction about the Māori way of doing things, both in the past and present.[126]. Seed kūmara in particular were highly tapu. Birds such as ducks were targeted during the moulting season and young birds such as Petrels and Gannets were taken from nests and cooked in their own fat to preserve them. [201][202], From the Classic period warfare was an important part of Māori culture. He described these whare as hotbeds for rats and vermin. [39], Early Māori dried (mokomokai) and displayed the heads and practised cannibalism of fallen enemies. [82], Tā moko is the traditional Māori art of tattooing the skin; a moko is an instance of the art. Although the oldest forms of Māori art are Archaic rock paintings, painting was not a major art form in the Classical period. The new land also provided new opportunities: Māori learned to use local resources like pounamu, native timber, harakeke and the abundant birdlife, producing practical tools or food, as well as beautiful ornaments and items of clothing. Some of the fundamental cultural concepts of Māoritanga are present throughout Polynesia, but all have been altered by New Zealand's unique history and environment. In 1834 Ngapuhi, partly due to the influence of missionaries such as Henry Williams, freed slaves they had captured in earlier wars,[37][38] The only place in New Zealand where slavery was common after 1835 was in the Chatham Islands. The standard building in a classic Māori settlement was a simple sleeping whare puni (house/hut) about 2 metres x 3 metres with a low roof, an earth floor, no window and a single low doorway. From the early 1990s a series of favourable outcomes from the treaty tribunal resulted in a large flow of capital in the form of land, primary resources and cash from the government to various Māori iwi (tribe or nation) and hapū (subtribe or clan). It almost always takes place on the home marae of the deceased. By 1800 the desire for iron objects such as large ships' nails overcame apprehension about boarding an anchored ship and this drove Māori trading behaviour until 1840. Heads might be returned in an effort to settle a tribal disagreement, but they were never traded. [49] In Raglan local Māori protesters reclaimed ownership of land used as an airstrip and golf course.[50]. Material used in construction varied between areas, but raupo reeds, flax and totara bark shingles for the roof were common. It was mainly used to produce decorative panels in wharenui (meeting houses), in stylised forms known as kōwhaiwhai. Gifts were given to recognise mana (power or authority). This lure has been reliably dated to the early- to mid-14th century. Both stone and bone were used to create jewellery such as the hei-tiki. [200], Today, the Māori monarch is a non-constitutional role with no legal power from the perspective of the New Zealand government. New Zealand is home to numerous museums … Since then, there has been a renewed focus on biculturalism, which is based on the partnership established between Māori and the Crown by the Treaty of Waitangi. Whāngai are adopted children who are raised with a whānau, most often as another member of that whānau, like a brother or sister. Appendix H. The Encyclopedia of New Zealand, Maui Pomare. Many carvers express their practices in explicitly spiritual terms. There were no Māori buildings of this size in pre-European days. Europeans introduced Māori to their more figurative style of art, and in the 19th century less stylised depictions of people and plants began to appear on wharenui walls in place of traditional carvings and woven panels. [109][110] Women covered their pubic area with small aprons or bunches of fragrant plant material when in the presence of men[110][111][112] – although these parts could be exposed in protest. Māori culture continues to play a massive role in modern New Zealand culture, and is an integral part of the New Zealand experience for any visitor. [87][88], Since 1990 there has been a resurgence in the practice of tā moko for both men and women, as a sign of cultural identity and a reflection of the general revival of Māori language and culture. or not publicly practised. The dominant factors influencing this shift were the burgeoning Māori population and the inability of the land to support the increasing population. [188], Another reason for Māori to "sell" land to missionaries was to protect the title of the land from other tribal competitors. [185] Māori had begun to include European concepts into their own cultural behaviour. In 1840, New Zealand's founding constitutional document, the Treaty of Waitangi, was signed by both Māori Chiefs and representatives of the British crown. Te Ara, The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. You can easily learn the correct pronunciation of place names, plus some simple Māori words and phrases, such as kia ora and other greetings. Kaitiakitanga: Guardianship or protection of the environment, based on traditional Māori customs. Tangihanga death customs. Tikanga (the correct way) often seems rigid, with set roles for men and women in ceremonies as … These compromises stopped with the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi. The marae is a communal ceremonial centre where meetings and ceremonies take place in accordance with traditional protocols. [citation needed], The Native Lands Act was a policy enforced by the government in 1865, which allowed the Māori people to obtain individual titles for their land to sell. Over time the King Movement came to have a flag, a council of state, a code of laws, a "King's Resident Magistrate", police, a bank, a surveyor and a newspaper, Te Hokioi, all of which gave the movement the appearance of an alternative government. Northern traders assumed that the chief was the organisational head of the hapū and all trade went through him including payments for goods purchased. Māori carved wooden bowls equipped with multiple neck snares and placed these in miro trees to catch these large birds. Your children will love learning about them during lessons. If a visitor is noteworthy, he or she may be welcomed with an aggressive challenge by a warrior armed with a taiaha (traditional fighting staff), who then offers a token of peace, such as a fern frond, to the visitor. [89], Charcoal drawings can be found on limestone rock shelters in the centre of the South Island, with over 500 sites[90] stretching from Kaikoura to North Otago. King says that the lower Māori educational attainment lead to lower income jobs, which led to lower income, poor housing, and poor health, which in turn led to higher rates of crime. New farmers were able to purchase a small freehold farm from Māori on which they established their homestead and farm buildings. CMS missionaries also outlawed the use of further moko, taking part in lewd dances and practising customary funeral rites. A number of different newspapers such as Te Pipiwharauroa and Te Korimako were written in the Māori language to convey information to a widespread Māori audience, often of a political or ideological nature. [12][need quotation to verify], Researchers often label the time from about 1280 to about 1450 the Archaic period or "Moa-hunter period" – after the moa, the large flightless bird that formed a large part of the diet of the early Polynesian settlers. Toi whakairo or just whakairo is the Māori traditional art of carving[74] in wood, stone or bone. One, a turret shell only found in the South Pacific islands, most notably in the Society Islands, has been reworked into a small chisel found at Wairau Bar and dated to about 1300. The aim was to produce Māori workers who were literate but could also work with, and repair, agricultural machinery as used on farms and in the new flour mills. These changes reflect a significant alteration in the basis for income and employment – from working on rural land to working mainly in construction, freezing works or labouring. The settlers and the government also had very limited access to trained surveyors and even freehold land boundaries were ill-defined. He aimed to kill leading Europeans in the area but they had been warned by friendly Māori and left before the attack. The strong female presence among early settlers in New Zealand suggests that Polynesian migration voyages were not accidental but deliberate. We have a great selection of teaching resources on Māori culture. Missionaries who travelled with Māori guides found that at river crossings canoes were left for the use of any traveller. Often black clothes are worn, following Victorian practices. Less common were bones from small birds and sea mammals. The Māori became a minority population in New Zealand. The Bush has information on Rongoā or Māori medicinal use of plants. Find out what the meanings behind this art form. [26], In the coastal South Island, the Māori population was very small. In informal settings, men went naked except for a belt with a piece of string attached holding their foreskin shut over their glans penis. European sailors, including Cook, found Polynesian sailors lost at sea, suggesting that by the mid-18th century knowledge of long-distance navigation was not ubiquitous. The coastal sites showed that Māori had created man-made soils in the sand dunes ranging from small to very large (over 100m2). [124], Films that feature Māori themes and culture include:[125], The novels of Witi Ihimaera and the short stories of Patricia Grace provide an insider's view of the culture. Tubercular ulcers were called pokapoka. Here is a list of some familiar te reo Māoriwords used to describe various aspects of Māori culture and customs. The first Māori newspaper appeared in 1842. [75], Tohunga whakairo are master craftsmen. After lapsing for many years it is now becoming more widely celebrated[72] in a range of ways[73] and over the period of a week or month anywhere from early June to late July. One of the main reasons for name fluidity was access to resources. Māori closely observed the natural world to take advantage of seasonal opportunities. [139][citation not found][140]. The Māori tattoo traditions and techniques were brought to New Zealand from Eastern Polynesia. In the context of a gift exchange, utu creates and preserves social connections and commitments. [61], Utu is often associated with the word 'revenge'. Their history, language and traditions are central to New Zealand’s identity. All teaching by missionaries was in Māori and this continued in the native schools until 1900 when at the insistence of the Young Māori Party Māori MPs, schools started teaching in English. When a person, place, or thing is considered to be tapu, it is often distinguished as something in high value and importance, being set aside by the gods. This practice was done in order to express the buildings' significance and to secure the gods' protection. Recently original slates and written material from that period in the Bay of Islands has been located, photographed and published. Crossing swamps was common. This act abolished the traditional shared landholdings and made it easier for European settlers to directly purchase land for themselves. [146] 11. [172][citation not found] Between 1840 and 1850 numbers of explorers, artists, government officials including Governor Grey travelled inland with the aid of Māori guides. [29] In the 1850s as Māori with the active encouragement of Grey embraced trade were gradually able to develop a large fleet of small trading schooners and similar craft. These are just some examples. Although marae have modern cooking facilities, the traditional hāngi is still used to provide meals for large groups because the food it produces is considered flavourful. In 1823 a man called Te Puaha visited the Bay of Islands, bringing back with him Captain Kent who arrived on his ship, Elizabeth Henrietta, at Kāwhia in 1824. Te Reo is the station's second channel, launched 28 March 2008. Poi dances may also form part of the repertoire. The Māori flourished in the performance arts such as traditional dances and songs. The Bone People a novel by Keri Hulme, won the Booker Prize for Fiction in 1985. They reasoned that they could influence Māori more effectively after baptism and were subsequently successful in attracting many converts in the western Hokianga district, away from the dominant CMS influence. As indicated by Ka'ai and Higgins, "the importance of the tangihanga and its central place in marae custom is reflected in the fact that it takes precedence over any other gathering on the marae". There are numerous semi-formal designs, representing different features of the natural world. The traditional Māori literature is primarily oral. In the past, hapū changed names if they moved to another area where an alternative name was more positive. The patterns and characters represented record the beliefs and genealogies (whakapapa) of Māori. The warmer climate of the north and northern and central coastal regions allowed better growth of subtropical plants such as kūmara, yam and gourds. Māori MP Winston Peters, was the deputy Prime minister. They originated settlers from eastern Polynesian islands, who arrived in New Zealand in several waves of canoe voyages at … Utu recovers balance in the event that social relations are interrupted. Earle recognised that tohunga used a range of plants to treat minor skin ailments. As an official language, it's common to hear Te Reo Māori spoken, and many official place names are in Māori. In 1863 Rewi Maniapoto attacked and burnt down the school, stealing the printing press. [168][citation not found]. In the 1980s, however, government-sponsored schools (Kura Kaupapa Māori) began to teach in te reo, educating those with European as well as those with Māori ancestry. A karakia is also considered as a formal greeting when beginning a ceremony. The historic traditions such as the poukai (annual visits by the monarch to marae) and the koroneihana (coronation celebrations) continue. [147][148][citation not found], Traditional Māori religion, has deviated little from its tropical Eastern Polynesian roots on the island of Hawaiki Nui. Māori farming was often based on a different system of values and not driven by European goals of efficiency and high productivity. They appear in films such as Whale Rider, Star Wars: Episode III – Revenge of the Sith, The Matrix, King Kong, River Queen, The Lord of The Rings, Rapa Nui, and others, and famous television series like Xena: Warrior Princess, Hercules: The Legendary Journeys, The Lost World and Spartacus: Blood and Sand. [179][180], By 1839 a large proportion of the Māori trade in goods was paid for in cash, with Māori showing a strong preference for coins rather than paper banknotes. Funded by the New Zealand Government, the station started broadcasting on 28 March 2004 from a base in Newmarket. Because of the very small number of Europeans who visited New Zealand in the 18th and early 19th century, the core values of Māori culture altered little. This was their first and most successful legal experience. Since the Māori Renaissance there has been a resurgence of interest in whakairo, alongside other traditional Māori practices, with a much greater integration with mainstream contemporary art. When missionaries back in arrived in the Bay of Islands they realised that if they were going to introduce Christianity and change what they considered to be barbaric practices like cannibalism, slavery, lewd dancing and having multiple wives, they would need to establish schools. The details of the protocols, called "tikanga" or "kawa",[136] vary by iwi but in all cases locals and visitors have to respect certain rules especially during the rituals of encounter. This left the skin with grooves rather than a smooth surface. It mixed Christian, Judaic and Māori customary influences. Māori traditions are things that have been part of their culture and heritage for hundreds of years. In the early 1800s chiefs commonly provided Māori wives - often their daughters - to whalers. The marae symbolises group unity and generally consists of an open cleared area in front of a large carved meeting house, along with a dining hall and other facilities necessary to provide a comfortable stay for visiting groups. Traditionally, the essence of kōhā is that it is voluntary and comes from the heart, so to specify the amount is contrary to its spirit. Ki-o-rahi and tapawai are two sports of Māori origin. The logo was introduced in 1973 to coincide with the arrival of the airline's first McDonnell Douglas DC-10 wide-body jet. Explore First peoples in Māori tradition or Māori creation traditions to learn about the origins of Māori, Māori gods and their creation story. [108], Little of the human body had to be concealed for modesty's sake. Tikanga, or Māori customs, are also important in daily life. [121] There are many different haka; though, one, "Ka mate" by Te Rauparaha, is much more widely known than any other. Māori cultural history intertwines inextricably with the culture of Polynesia as a whole. In some areas piles of volcanic rock which kept warm at night, were used to train the vines of gourds. Māori Culture, Central Inspired by Maori art and culture, Adrienne Whitewood takes traditional concepts and with them invents unique silhouettes exploring fabric manipulation and technology, her ethos is all about creating wearable clothing for women who want an emotional connection to … However, between 1991 and 2000, the Māori rate rose to more than 3.5 times the non-Māori rate and from 2001 to 2005 the Māori child-homicide rate reached around 2.4 times that of non-Māori. Later, as Māori grew large areas of potatoes (Hongi Hika had a 40-acre potato field), whalers would call into the Bay of Islands, in particular, to trade for fresh supplies. 4. The 1996 election produced 14 Māori MPs with 3 in the cabinet. This continued through the contact period and was expressed during the 20th century by large groups of volunteers in the First and Second world wars. to friends at Motuawa near the Mokau heads. Find out what a hāngī involves and where you can try one for yourself. Careful storage and use of tapu was essential to prevent unauthorised use. Over the last five millennia, proto-Polynesians and their descendants performed a sequence of complicated and remarkable transoceanic treks in an unprecedented accomplishment of navigation and curiosity. [52], This position set high expectations for positive results from the Treaty of Waitangi Tribunal which was set up to investigate Māori grievances against historical New Zealand governments in relation to the treaty. [13] During this period Māori adapted to their new environment, but culturally they changed little from their tropical Pacific ancestors. By the 1820s European men had married about 200 Māori women in the coastal area between present-day Christchurch and Invercargill, about half of all the marriageable-aged women in the South Island – in fact, Māori men started to find it hard to compete for wives.[27]. (Other main Polynesian cultures include those of: Rapa Nui (now known as Easter Island), Hawaii, the Marquesas, Samoa, Tahiti, Tonga, and the Cook Islands.) It wasn't until the 1980s that Māori culture started to undergo a renaissance. [17][dead link] Stone served in all aspects of Polynesian life: from chopping wood to cutting and slicing food, as anchors for waka (canoes) and for fishing nets, for retaining the heat in a hāngi, as drills using chert, and for stone clubs. The most important event located at marae are tangihanga. [179], In the early 19th century many Europeans entered into dealings with Māori to obtain land for their use. Some degree of control passed to the missionaries who Māori trusted to allow them continued access and use. SCIS no. Pathos is commonly used to create a feeling of comfort and unity. However, it is still threatened and, according to the 2001 census results, was spoken by only one in four Māori. The normal Māori method of travel was on foot. Meetinghouses became places for tribal celebrations or political meetings, especially after the 1860s Land Wars. Tikanga, or Māori customs, are also important in daily life. [153], Early European reports suggest that Māori children were indulged and led a carefree and playful life. [174] These ranged from small river-going boats, to the large waka taua sea-going war vessels carrying up to 80 paddlers, and up to 40 metres (130 ft) long. And this has allowed the world to experience one of the culture’s most pulsating traditions — the Haka, essentially a Māori ceremonial dance or chant that tells a story.