This was Rommel's single most important contribution to the defense of the Normandy coast ... Rommel's pet project, the coastal obstacles, had proven to be one of the most successful innovations in the German defenses. [41], During World War I, Rommel fought in France as well as in the Romanian (notably at the Second Battle of the Jiu Valley) and Italian campaigns. Rudolf „Rudi“ Brunnenmeier (* 11.Februar 1941 in Olching; † 18. [85] Rommel and Hitler had a close and genuine, if complicated, personal relationship. He was given a staff that befitted an army group commander, and the powers to travel, examine and make suggestions on how to improve the defences, but not a single soldier. In Desert Warfare", "Paris stürzt sich auf Rommels Erinnerungen", "Der Mythos vom Wüstenfuchs: Wie "ritterlich" kämpften Deutsche und Briten wirklich? This ideal of modern knighthood is connected and combined with the anachronistic Miles Christianus model, the more recent "Miles Protector" model,[783] the "Soldier-Statesman" concept, and the traditional monofunctional combatant. [33] Rommel was given a state funeral, and it was announced that he had succumbed to his injuries from the strafing of his staff car in Normandy. Pp. No lift was present, and the men had to climb to ski down the hillside. The official notice of Rommel's death as reported to the public, stated that he had died of either a heart attack or a cerebral embolism—a complication of the skull fractures he had suffered in the earlier strafing of his staff car. [104] According to Caddick-Adams, he was backed by Hitler, the influential Fourteenth Army commander Wilhelm List (a fellow Württemberger middle-class "military outsider") and likely Guderian as well. [647][N 20][648] Hitler took note of the British propaganda as well, commenting in the summer of 1942 that Britain's leaders must have hoped "to be able to explain their defeat to their own nation more easily by focusing on Rommel". [435][436][437][438], Rommel's relationship with the Italian High Command in North Africa was generally poor. "[566] Showalter writes: "In fact, the garrison of Le Quesnoy, most of them Senegalese, took heavy toll of the German infantry in house-to-house fighting. During parliamentary debate following the fall of Tobruk, Churchill described Rommel as an "extraordinary bold and clever opponent" and a "great field commander". Driving through the night, they were able to reduce the halt to a single day. Juli 1954 (Dt. ", Robert Citino: "His career had been based solely on Hitler's favor, and we might reasonably describe his attitude toward the Führer as worshipful. 3 Monate lesen und 2 Prämien erhalten! S-Z. [573] According to other historians, Rommel's Italian responsibility ended on 19 October 1943, when Northern Italy was left under Kesselring's authority, and Rommel received his new mission as Inspector General of Defence in the West on 5 November. [205][206][207] On 6 June, 90th Light Division and the Trieste Division assaulted the Free French strongpoint in the Battle of Bir Hakeim, but the defenders continued to thwart the attack until finally evacuating on 10 June. Sein letzter Dienstgrad war Hauptmann. He had sent Hitler a meticulously prepared diary of his division's exploits and received a letter of thanks just before Christmas. The nature of the fighting as well diminished the last-ditch, close-quarter actions that are primary nurturers of mutual bitterness. Rundstedt had confided to Rommel that it was for propaganda purposes only. Despite his insistence that the black and white prisoners should be in the same compounds and accorded the same treatment,[603] the black and white POWs were only kept together at the early state of detention, with the black POWs being singled out for harsher tasks and maltreatment. [120] The reason for this decision is still a matter of debate. Rommel believed that if his armies pulled out of range of Allied naval fire, it would give them a chance to regroup and re-engage them later with a better chance of success. Rommel was born on 15 November 1891, in Heidenheim, 45 kilometres (28 mi) from Ulm, in the Kingdom of Württemberg, Southern Germany, then part of the German Empire. He treated prisoners of war with consideration. It included the Italo-German Panzer Army under Messe (renamed 1st Italian Army) and the German 5th Panzer Army in the north of Tunisia under General Hans-Jürgen von Arnim. He made use of the extensive British minefields to shield his western flank. Die Radio-Reportage Herbert Zimmermanns wurde sehr bekannt. Rommel saying that using the Indians was unfair also should be put in perspective, considering the disbandment of the battle-hardened 4th Division by the Allies. A battalion overrun by tanks usually had its resistance broken so completely that nothing was to be gained by a broken-backed final stand. [454] However, others point out that the Italians under Rommel, in comparison with many of their compatriots in other areas, were better led, supplied, and trained, fighting well as a result, with a ratio of wounded and killed Italians similar to that of the Germans. [337] Reuth, based on Jodl's testimony, reports that Rommel forcefully presented the situation and asked for political solutions from Hitler, who rebuffed that Rommel should leave politics to him. [701][702] The Nazi elites were not comfortable with the idea of a national icon who did not wholeheartedly support the regime. [580] Historians Christian Schweizer and Peter Lieb note that: "Over the last few years, even though the social science teacher Wolfgang Proske has sought to participate in the discussion [on Rommel] with very strong opinions, his biased submissions are not scientifically received. The 29th Indian Infantry Brigade was nearly destroyed, losing 6,000 troops and 40 tanks. Remy: Kesselring, ... in his memoirs that criticizes the five-year younger and much more popular Rommel, ... he already knew at least since the war's end about American arms shipment and intention to intervene which would render the strategical value of Malta meaningless, that left Rommel only one choice ... Mitcham: General Warlimont of the High Command later wrote that he "could in any case hardly have acted differently" in ordering the pursuit. Thus, although he had no direct hand in the atrocities, Rommel made himself complicit in war crimes by failing to point out that international laws of war strictly prohibited certain forms of retaliation. Bonner Fellers, the US diplomat in Egypt, was sending detailed reports to the US State Department using a compromised code. [495], Some authors cite, among other cases, Rommel's naive reaction to events in Poland while he was there: he paid a visit to his wife's uncle, famous Polish priest and patriotic leader, Edmund Roszczynialski [pl] who was murdered within days, but Rommel never understood this and, at his wife's urgings, kept writing letter after letter to Himmler's adjutants asking them to keep track and take care of their relative. However, in view of the Axis' deteriorating situation in Africa it returned to Germany in September. The two Italian armoured divisions, Ariete and Trieste, were still under Italian control. Jetzt 3 Monate lesen und 2 Prämien erhalten! Johannes Erwin Eugen Rommel (15 November 1891 – 14 October 1944) was a German general and military theorist. Profitez de millions d'applications Android récentes, de jeux, de titres musicaux, de films, de séries, de livres, de magazines, et plus encore. The Germans lost 12 tanks, while capturing and seriously damaging over 20 British tanks. "[675], The close relationship between Rommel and Hitler continued following the Western campaign; after Rommel sent to him a specially prepared diary on the 7th Division, he received a letter of thanks from the dictator. Rommel's grave is located in Herrlingen, a short distance west of Ulm. ", Desert Fox: The Storied Military Career of Erwin Rommel Despite this, other pieces of evidence show that he considered the Nazi racial ideologies to be rubbish. The situation only became radicalized for the Jews when Italy entered the war in 1940. [802] Walburga died suddenly in October 1928, and Gertrude remained a member of the household until Rommel's death in 1944. [510] Historian Haim Saadon, Director of the Center of Research on North African Jewry in WWII, goes further, stating that there was no extermination plan: Rauff's documents show that his foremost concern was helping the Wehrmacht to win, and he came up with the idea of forced labour camps in the process. [90] Uri Avnery notes that he protected the Jews in his district even as a low-ranking officer. [398][399] Stream Babert - Boogie Oogie (Original Mix) by L.O.Dee from desktop or your mobile device. [319] On 15 April 1944 Rommel's new chief of staff, Hans Speidel, arrived in Normandy and reintroduced Rommel to Stülpnagel. [611] Commenting on Rommel's conquest of Tunisia, Marvin Perry writes that: "The bridgehead Rommel established in Tunisia enabled the SS to herd Jews into slave labor camps. [408] Owen Connelly concurs, writing that "No better exemplar of military leadership can be found" and quoting Friedrich von Mellenthin on the inexplicable mutual understanding that existed between Rommel and his troops. [388][389][390][391] To strengthen the story, Hitler ordered an official day of mourning in commemoration of his death. [72][73][74][75][76] Trying to fulfill a mission assigned to him by the Ministry of War,[77] Rommel had twice proposed a plan that would have effectively subordinated Hitler Youth to the army, removing it from NSDAP control. "[410] Telp criticises Rommel for not extending the benevolence he showed in promoting his own officers' careers to his peers, who he ignored or slighted in his reports. The situation became worse after Balbo died in an aircraft accident. Measures, which began in November 1942, were largely restricted in Tunisia to German- and Italian- organized forced labor and official plunder; and in Libya to the Italian internment of foreign Jews and those from the region of Cyrenaica. [26], According to Reuth, this period left an indelible impression on Rommel's mind that "Everyone in this Republic was fighting each other," along with direct experience of people attempting to convert Germany into a socialist republic on Soviet lines. Rommel immediately turned back against the British forces, occupying the Mareth Line (old French defences on the Libyan border). [639] Seconded by Goebbels, Berndt was assigned to Rommel's staff and became one of his closest aides. Montgomery called off further action to preserve his strength and allow for further desert training for his forces. He grasped the significance of an improvement or an invention very quickly and often added to it. He had left France on 5 June and was at home on the 6th celebrating his wife's birthday. [60] In 1919 he was briefly sent to Friedrichshafen on Lake Constance, where he restored order by "sheer force of personality" in the 32nd Internal Security Company, which was composed of rebellious and pro-communist sailors. [216] He strongly argued that the Panzerarmee should advance into Egypt and drive on to Alexandria and the Suez Canal, as this would place almost all the Mediterranean coastline in Axis hands, ease conditions on the Eastern Front, and potentially lead to the capture from the south of the oil fields in the Caucasus and Middle East. [58][51] He was then assigned as an instructor at the Dresden Infantry School from 1929 to 1933, and during this time was promoted to major, in April 1932. v, 249. sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFMessenger2009 (, sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFCaddick-Adams2012 (, sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFZaloga2013 (, Three German Invasions of France: The Summers Campaigns of 1830, 1914, 1940 Douglas Fermer page 210, Pen & Sword 2013, Knight's Cross: A Life of Field Marshal Erwin Rommel by David Fraser, 1993 – Page 198 [298][299], The Allies staged elaborate deceptions for D-Day (see Operation Fortitude), giving the impression that the landings would be at Calais. [511][512] By the time these labour camps were in operation, according to Ben H. Shepherd, Rommel had already been retreating and there is no proof of his contact with the Einsatzkommando. [591][592] According to The Encyclopedia of Jewish Life Before and During the Holocaust: A-J, most of the looting against the Jews in Benghazi after British withdrawal in 1941 was done by local Italian residents. Trans. 7th Panzer was given six days' leave, during which Rommel was summoned to Berlin to meet with Hitler. [102] Rommel's successes in World War I were based on surprise and manoeuvre, two elements for which the new panzer units were ideally suited. The charade was maintained until the spring of 1943, even as the German situation in Africa became increasingly precarious. [378][379] He thus decided to offer Rommel the chance to take his own life. [739][740][N 30] Young extensively interviewed Rommel's widow and collaborated with several individuals who had been close to Rommel, including Hans Speidel. [115] That night, the French II Army Corps was shattered and on 17 May, Rommel's forces took 10,000 prisoners, losing 36 men in the process. The 90th Light Division veered off course and were pinned down by South African artillery fire. B. Lippincott Company, 1944, Les Tirailleurs sénégalais; Les soldats noirs entre légendes et réalités 1939–1945 by Julien Fargetta, Tallandier 2012, Rouen sous l'occupation: 1940–1944, Patrick Coiffier, page 6, Bertout, 2004, Paroles de résistance – Page 75 Niall Barr: "... came to fame in a theatre which held almost no strategic interest for Hitler whatsoever. Nevertheless, the riflemen took few prisoners, and the delay imposed by the tirailleurs forced the Panzers to advance unsupported until Rommel was ordered to halt for fear of coming under attack by Stukas. [43] The armies continued to skirmish in open engagements throughout September, as the static trench warfare typical of the First World War was still in the future. [270] On 9 March he returned to Germany. [235][236] Under heavy fire from British artillery and aircraft, and in the face of well prepared positions that Rommel could not hope to outflank for lack of fuel, the attack stalled. By Gilberto Villahermosa, page 137, The Veterans' Tale: British Military Memoirs of the Second World War [50] In two and a half days, from 25 to 27 October, Rommel and his 150 men captured 81 guns and 9,000 men (including 150 officers), at the loss of six dead and 30 wounded. [768] Maurice Remy and Samuel W. Mitcham both defend his strategic decision regarding Malta as, although risky, the only logical choice. [335][336] Some officers who had worked with Rommel also recognized the relationship between Rommel and the resistance: Westphal said that Rommel did not want any more senseless sacrifices. [487] In Normandy though, when they had already become the Indische Freiwilligen Legion der Waffen SS, he visited them and praised them for their efforts (while they still suffered general disrespect within the Wehrmacht). Karl-Heinz Frieser: Blitzkrieg-Legende, der Westfeldzug 1940, 2. [283][656] In May 1944 the German newsreels reported on Rommel's speech at a Wehrmacht conference, where he stated his conviction that "every single German soldier will make his contribution against the Anglo-American spirit that it deserves for its criminal and bestial air war campaign against our homeland." [47] While stationed in Weingarten in 1913, Rommel developed a relationship with Walburga Stemmer, which produced a daughter, Gertrude, born 8 December 1913. Rommel, as other Wehrmacht officers, welcomed the Nazi rise to power. Unlike other occasions in 1940, when Germans and Africans met, there was no deliberate massacre of survivors. Not liberation, but destruction: war damage in Tunisia in the Second World War, 1942–43 Mark W. Willis The Journal of North African Studies, 2015. But, according to Linge, seeing Rommel's disobedience Hitler also realized his mistake in building up Rommel, whom not only the Afrika Korps but also the German people in general now considered the German God. Tooooor! [141] His efforts in the Western Desert Campaign earned Rommel the nickname the "Desert Fox" from British journalists. [259] By this time it was impossible for Rommel to save his non-motorized units. Rommel's reputation for conducting a clean war was used in the interest of the West German rearmament and reconciliation between the former enemies – the United Kingdom and the United States on one side and the new Federal Republic of Germany on the other.