Several of these figures disputed the legitimacy and position of the Supreme Leader, Ayatollah Ali Khamenei. The latter were established in 1979 to try offenses viewed as potentially threatening to the Islamic Republic, including threats to internal or external security, narcotics crimes, economic crimes (including hoarding and overpricing), and official corruption. Two years later, the Iranian Supreme Court reduced two of the death sentences to life. Officials say … Pretrial detention often was prolonged and defendants lacked access to attorneys. The Government arrested the leaders of the Iran Nations Party in the aftermath of the July 1999 demonstrations. In late 1998, three dissident writers, a political leader and his wife were killed in Iran in the span of two months. 5 “Intelligence and Law” [ å î ç × í Ë ü Ã ], Jame Jam Online [Tehran], February 11, 2009, http://www. The government responded by carrying out mass arrests and executions. Several agencies share responsibility for internal security, including the Ministry of Intelligence and Security, the Ministry of Interior, and the Revolutionary Guards, a military force that was established after the revolution. The concept of Velayt-e-Faqih ("Supreme Religious Guardian"), or the right of clerics to rule over the Islamic community, is central to the interpretation of Islam of Ayatollah Khomeini and his successors. The a… The reign of terror officially ended in December 1982 when Khomeini issued an eight-point decree that effectively instructed the courts to ensure that the civil and due process rights of citizens be safeguarded. The two most active are the traditional courts, which adjudicate civil and criminal offenses, and the Islamic Revolutionary Courts. The ministry is one of the three "sovereign" ministerial bodies of Iran due to nature of its work at home and abroad.[2]. Mohammad Khatami was elected to a 4-year term as President in a popular vote in February 1997. U.S. intelligence agencies are accusing Iran and Russia of trying to use voter registration data in “desperate attempts” to sow chaos and confusion ahead of the November 3 U.S. According to press reports, President Khatami's executive branch also rejected the charges, stating that the pollsters were doing legitimate work cleared by the Intelligence and Foreign Ministries. The arrests were made in the province in the past Iranian calendar year … However, the court then released all but two of the accused officers. The years 1981 and 1982 were marked by extensive political violence as the political elite other groups contested for power, with organized gangs attacking individuals and organizations considered to be enemies of the Revolution. Advisory on the Iranian Regime's Illicit and Malign Activities and Attempts to Exploit the Financial System, FinCEN Advisory, October 11, 2018. [3] Initially, the organization was known as SAVAMA,[4] and intended to replace SAVAK, Iran's intelligence agency during the rule of the Shah, but it is unclear how much continuity there is between the two organizations—while their role is similar, their underlying ideology is radically different. The Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) today released “Iran Military Power,” an intelligence product that examines the core capabilities of Iran's military. For example, defendants have the right to a public trial, may choose their own lawyer, and have the right of appeal. Following the trial, defense lawyers told news reporters that they were threatened by judiciary officials and pressured to admit their clients' guilt. Like other foreign intelligence agencies, Mossad cooperates with other similar entities from other countries. Khomeini was the first faqih. Reliable and valid information on the ministry is often difficult to obtain. March 16, 2021. Reformist Parliamentarians were barred from the court, and press reports indicated that the defendants were not allowed to see their families or their attorneys. TEHRAN, April 5 (Xinhua) -- Iran's northwestern East Azarbaijan Province arrested a number of people spying for foreign intelligence services, official Islamic Republic News Agency reported Monday. In such cases, there exist frequent overlaps among offices tasked with espionage,… The trial was closed, and the defendants were not allowed to choose their own lawyers. It is suspected that the new government was initially eager to purge SAVAK elements from the new organization, but that pragmatism eventually prevailed, with many experienced SAVAK personnel being retained in their roles. Senior U.S. intelligence officials have accused both Russia and Iran of trying to interfere with the 2020 presidential election, drawing swift denials from Moscow and Tehran. Identifying Small Arms and RPGs Produced in Iran, U.S. Army National Ground … These clerics include Ayatollah Seyyed Hassan Tabataei-Qomi, who has been under house arrest in Mashad for more than fifteen years, Ayatollah Ya'asub al-Din Rastgari, who has been under house arrest in Qom since late 1996, and Ayatollah Mohammad Shirazi, who died in December 2001 while under house arrest in Qom. And there is no possibility to organize. The so-called Special Clergy Court has also shut down many reform-minded newspapers, accusing them of insulting the clerical authorities. Both regular and paramilitary security forces commit numerous, serious human rights abuses. Historically at risk, Baha'is often have suffered increased levels of mistreatment during times of political unrest. The legitimacy of the Special Clerical Court (SCC) system continues to be a subject of debate. Defendants did not have the right to confront their accusers. Trials in the Revolutionary Courts, in which crimes against national security and other principal offenses are heard, were notorious for their disregard of international standards of fairness. U.S. intelligence agencies previously warned that Iran might interfere to hurt Trump and that Russia was trying to help him in the election. There were debates about which branch of the state should oversee the new institution, and the other options apart from the presidency were the Judiciary system, the Supreme Leader, and Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps. If possible, verify the text with references provided in the foreign-language article. At the height of the confrontation, an average of 50 persons per day were executed; on several days during September 1981, the total number executed throughout the country exceeded 100. Russia and Iran tried to interfere with 2020 election, U.S. intelligence agencies say Published Tue, Mar 16 2021 2:15 PM EDT Updated Tue, Mar 16 … Trials against Baha'is have reflected this view. The head of the Supreme Court and Prosecutor General also must be clerics. Iran's Ministry of Intelligence and Security: A Profile Library of Congress Federal Research Division, December 2012. The announcement came during discussions with the United Kingdom regarding the restoration of full diplomatic relations. A press court hears complaints against publishers, editors, and writers in the media. In particular, critics alleged that the clerical courts were used to prosecute certain clerics for expressing controversial ideas and for participating in activities outside the sphere of religion, such as journalism. Russia and Iran tried to interfere with 2020 election, U.S. intelligence agencies say Published Tue, Mar 16 2021 2:15 PM EDT Updated Tue, Mar 16 … US intelligence agencies assessed that Iran offered bounties to Taliban fighters for targeting American and coalition troops in Afghanistan, identifying payments linked to … China and Iran are working to sway U.S. voters against President Donald Trump while Russia is working against his rival, Joe Biden, intelligence agencies said Friday. Other articles where MOIS is discussed: intelligence: Iran: …of Intelligence and Security (MOIS), which is responsible for both intelligence and counterintelligence. Ayatollah Ali Khamenei served as President under the Ayatollah Khomeini from 1982-1989. JOINT BASE ANACOSTIA-BOLLING, D.C. , The Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) today released “Iran Military Power,” an intelligence product that examines the core capabilities of Iran's military. Abbas Abdi, one of the organizers of the student takeover of the US Embassy in Tehran in 1979, and now a prominent journalist and member of the board of Ayandeh, was arrested in November 2002. By the end of 1982 an estimated 7,500 persons had been executed or killed in street battles with the Pasdaran. US intelligence agencies say Iran, Russia have tried to interfere in 2020 election Reuters Published October 22, 2020. A November 1995 law criminalized dissent and applied the death penalty to offenses such as "attempts against the security of the State, outrage against high-ranking Iranian officials, and insults against the memory of Imam Khomeini and against the Supreme Leader of the Islamic Republic." WASHINGTON—U.S. U.S. intelligence agencies are accusing Iran and Russia of trying to use voter registration data in “desperate attempts” to sow chaos and confusion ahead of the November 3 U.S. The Supreme Court has limited authority to review cases. He gave no details of the court proceedings against the four, which apparently were conducted in secret. It was initially known as SAVAMA, after it took over the Shah's intelligence apparatus SAVAK. A few days after the publication of a special booklet by the ministry of intelligence, Fars news agency which is closely associated with Iran’s intelligence services announced for the first time the existence of 16 intelligence-security agencies in the Islamic republic. He was finally freed from house arrest on January 2003 amid concern over his deteriorating health. On 08 July 1999, students at Tehran University who were protesting proposed legislation by the Majles that would limit press freedoms and the Government's closure of a prominent reform-oriented newspaper, were attacked by elements of the security forces and Ansar-e Hezbollah thugs. The defendants were held for more than 1 year without being charged formally or given access to lawyers. Some are released; others continue to be held in prison. 2012). Non-Governmental Organizations are not registered. The former head of the Iran Nations Party, Darioush Forouhar, was murdered along with his wife in late 1998 by agents of the Iranian intelligence service. Intelligence Agencies Say Russia, Iran Tried To Interfere In 2020 Election. Do not translate text that appears unreliable or low-quality. The Ministry of Intelligence of the Islamic Republic of Iran (Persian: وزارت اطّلاعات جمهوری اسلامی ایران‎, romanized: Vezarat-e Ettela'at Jomhuri-ye Eslami-ye Iran) is the primary intelligence agency of the Islamic Republic of Iran and a member of the Iran Intelligence Community. Working with ... examines the intelligence to assess Iran’s capability and intent (or lack thereof) to acquire nuclear weapons, taking full account of Iran’s dual-use uranium fuel cycle and those The mullahs of Iran assert that by virtue of the 1979 revolution they have acquired the status of "guardians" of all Muslims throughout the world. He reportedly announced that 98 officers were arrested for their actions. Pro-democracy demonstrations by students in Iran during 2002 did not lead to greater freedoms. This page was last edited on 30 June 2020, at 02:17 (UTC). Twitter Share . The Ministry of Intelligence and Security is one of two organizations responsible for conducting covert activities outside of Iran. Iran’s Judiciary Spokesman Gholamhossein Esmaili had announced in August 2020 that the country’s security forces had arrested several spies cooperating with foreign intelligence agencies. It examines the organization, structure and capability of … intelligence agencies Tuesday afternoon published their conclusions about foreign threats posed to the 2020 U.S. presidential election, concluding Russia and Iran were the most active foreign adversaries involved in attempting to influence the outcome.. This conservative Web site is There is no jury system in the civil and criminal courts. The duties of the faqih include appointing the jurists to the Council of Guardians; the chief judges of the judicial branch; the chief of staff of the armed forces; the commander of the Pasdaran (Pasdaran-e Enghelab-e Islami, or Islamic Revolutionary Guards Corps, or Revolutionary Guards); the personal representatives of the faqih to the Supreme Defense Council; and the commanders of the army, air force, and navy, following their nomination by the Supreme Defense Council. Indictments often lacked clarity and included undefined offenses such as "antirevolutionary behavior," "moral corruption," and "siding with global arrogance." There is not a democracy in Iran. It also has conducted covert actions outside Iran in support of Islamic regimes elsewhere; for example, it was said to have provided military support to Muslim fighters in Kosovo and in Bosnia and Herzegovina in the… 28-07-2011 00:53:04 ZULU. This concepts holds that Muslims throughout the world constitute a single community - the Ummah - who must be ruled by a single government. 6. Ministry of Intelligence may refer to: Ministry of Intelligence (Iran) Ministry of Intelligence (Israel) Last edited on 30 June 2020, at 02:17. The security forces often do not inform family members of a prisoner's welfare and location. Those who do receive such information reportedly have been forced on occasion to pay the Government to retrieve the body of their relative. All were charged with a combination of spying for the US, illegal contacts with foreign embassies, working with anti-regime groups, and carrying out research on the order of the foreign polling organization; although government intelligence officials had publicly stated that the accused were not spies. Finally, the government got the approval of Ayatollah Khomeini to make it a ministry, but a restriction was added to the requirements of the minister: that he must be a doctor of Islam. It is headquartered in Beijing and has 17 known bureaus or divisions, including a counterintelligence division and a social research division.The MSS plays a central role in censoring the internet in China, cutting off the population from the outside world and allowing the government to control what influences the Chinese people. Political parties are non-existent unless they accept the ruling principle of the Islamic Republic. Revolutionary Court judges acted as both prosecutor and judge in the same case, and judges were chosen in part based on their ideological commitment to the system. The Government enforces house arrest and other measures to restrict the movements and ability to communicate of several senior religious leaders whose views regarding political and governance issues were at variance with the ruling orthodoxy. There is some form of freedom of expression for a very limited number of people who are in or on the fringes of the ruling oligarchy. A special clerical court examines alleged transgressions within the clerical establishment, and a military court investigates crimes committed in connection with military or security duties by members of the army, police, and the Revolutionary Guards. China and Iran are working to sway U.S. voters against President Donald Trump while Russia is working against his rival, Joe Biden, intelligence agencies said Friday. The 15 Khordad Foundation raised the bounty it earlier had established for the murder of Rushdie. The Intelligence and Security Services of Iran. The arrests were made in the province in the past Iranian calendar year … Owing to the ambiguous nature of their work, however, some countries often don't have a clear place for their intelligence apparatus within the government hierarchy. In September 1999 the head of the Tehran Revolutionary Court, Hojatoleslam Gholamhossein Rahbarpour, was quoted as saying that 1,500 students were arrested during the riots, 500 were released immediately after questioning, 800 were released later, and formal investigations were undertaken against the remaining 200. The other is the Qods Force, a branch of the Islamic Revolutionary Guard (IRGC), which conduct special intelligence operations outside of Iran. There is some form of freedom of speech that is a little bit different from the Soviet Union at the time of the worst repression, or China. A government clampdown through the use of Basiji and other forces led to a quiet period of two weeks that ended on December 7, when there was a large demonstration at the University of Tehran.