Yet there is still a strong stigma surrounding postpartum depression (PPD), which often makes mothers feel ashamed about sharing the symptoms they are experiencing and getting the help they need to feel better. The symptoms can range from mild to severe. The mother can be cured with the help of a shaman, who performs a séance to force the spirits to leave.[115]. In addition to these abnormalities, children who grew up around postpartum depression also are susceptible to developing violent tendencies. Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. [66], The most severe symptoms last from 2 to 12 weeks, and recovery takes 6 months to a year. Als Baby Blues (Postpartum Blues) bezeichnet man die psychische Empfindlichkeit, die sich bei vielen Frauen wenige Tage nach der Geburt einstellt. The criteria include at least five of the following nine symptoms, within a two-week period:[62], Postpartum blues, commonly known as "baby blues," is a transient postpartum mood disorder characterized by milder depressive symptoms than postpartum depression. [94] Other new allopregnanolone analogs under evaluation for use in the treatment of PPD include SAGE-2017 and ganaxolone. postpartale Depression lagen seit 2007 etwa 2700 Arbeiten vor. [120] When medical help is achieved, some women find the diagnosis helpful and encourage a higher profile for PPD amongst the health professional community. [62] Nevertheless, the majority of experts continue to diagnose postpartum depression as depression with onset anytime within the first year after delivery. Postpartum depression. Postpartum depression needs to be treated by a doctor or nurse. [75][76] These interventions included home visits, telephone-based peer support, and interpersonal psychotherapy. postpartale Depression (PPD) Die Wochenbettdepression betrifft nur die erste Zeit nach der Entbindung. Viguera A. Postpartum unipolar depression: Epidemiology, clinical features, assessment, and diagnosis. Contact a minister, spiritual leader or someone else in your faith community. Perinatal depression is a real medical illness and can affect any mother—regardless of age, race, income, culture, or education. Antenatal depression, also known as prenatal or perinatal depression, is a form of clinical depression that can affect a woman during pregnancy, and can be a precursor to postpartum depression if not properly treated. Single mothers of low income may have more limited access to resources while transitioning into motherhood. Most new moms experience postpartum "baby blues" after childbirth, which commonly include mood swings, crying spells, anxiety and difficulty sleeping. postpartale Depression – Definition. Mayo Clinic facts about coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), Our COVID-19 patient and visitor guidelines, plus trusted health information, Mayo Clinic Health System patient vaccination updates, Mayo Clinic Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Mayo Clinic School of Continuous Professional Development, Mayo Clinic School of Graduate Medical Education, See our safety precautions in response to COVID-19, Mayo Clinic Minute: Postpartum depression is different than baby blues, FREE book offer — Mayo Clinic Health Letter, Time running out - 40% off Online Mayo Clinic Diet ends soon. Postpartum depression (PPD) af-fects 10-15% of all new mothers, but may be as high as 35% in certain demographic groups.1 One study found that 19.2% of new mothers were diagnosed with major or minor depres- Depression post partum Leichte... im Wochenbett a.n.k. The infusion itself is a 60-hour, or 2.5 day, process. Als Wochenbettdepression wird eine Sonderform der depressiven Störung bezeichnet, die bis zu 24 Monate nach der Entbindung bei der Mutter auftreten kann. They also have decreased connectivity between vital brain structures including the anterior cingulate cortex, dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex, amygdala, and hippocampus. [30] Understanding the neuroendocrinology characteristic of PPD has proven to be particularly challenging given the erratic changes to the brain and biological systems during pregnancy and postpartum. When called into trial, she felt that she had saved her children rather than harming them and that this action would contribute to defeating Satan. Postpartum Psychosis Postpartum psychosis is an extremely rare but serious condition it occurs in only one or two out of every 1,000 deliveries. [25] These childcare inconsistencies may include feeding routines, sleep routines, and health maintenance. Accessed June 7, 2018. American Academy of Pediatrics. Archives of Women's Mental Health. Es ist nicht ungewöhnlich, dass Frauen vorübergehende Stimmungsstörungen zu erleben oder “Blues” nach der Geburt. [106] Based on her descriptions of visions of demons and conversations she wrote about that she had with religious figures like God and the Virgin Mary, historians have identified what Margery Kempe was suffering from as "postnatal psychosis" and not postpartum depression. Definition einer Depression Eine Depression ist eine weit verbreitete psychische Störung, die durch Traurigkeit, Interesselosigkeit und Verlust an Genussfähigkeit, Schuldgefühle und geringes Selbstwertgefühl, Schlafstörungen, Appetitlosigkeit, Müdigkeit und Konzentrationsschwächen gekennzeichnet sein kann. 3 Definition postpartale Depression „Als „postpartale Depressionen“ werden im allgemeinen (sic!) In 70% der Fälle beginnt die Erkrankung 1-2 Wochen nach der Geburt. Postpartale Depression und »weibliche Identität« Psychoanalytische Perspektiven auf Mutterschaft Die Schwere und Häufigkeit der post-partum- Störungen weisen darauf hin, dass es eine Verbindung zwischen der Konstitution einer weiblichen Identität und den sich daraus ergebenden Frustrationen und Enttäuschungen geben muss. [110] Gilman wrote the story to protest societal oppression of women as the result of her own experience as a patient. Moore KM (expert opinion). ICD F53.- Psychische oder Verhaltensstörungen im Wochenbett, anderenorts nicht klassifiziert Hier sind nur psychische Störungen im Zusammenhang mit dem Depression among women. POSTPARTUM DEPRESSION: LITERATURE REVIEW OF RISK FACTORS AND INTERVENTIONS Donna E. Stewart, MD, FRCPC E. Robertson, M.Phil, PhD Cindy-Lee Dennis, RN, PhD Sherry L. Grace, MA, PhD Tamara Wallington, MA, MD, FRCPC ©University Health Network Women’s Health Program 2003 Zwei Wochen lang litt Juliane Böhm. Postpartum depression is a mood disorder that affects women soon after they give birth, and in some cases, the disorder can set in even during pregnancy. Meaning, pronunciation, picture, example sentences, grammar, usage notes, synonyms and more. African American mothers have been shown to have the highest risk of PPD at 25%, while Asian mothers had the lowest at 11.5%, after controlling for social factors such as age, income, education, marital status, and baby's health. [1] Onset is typically between one week and one month following childbirth. Some Chinese women participate in a ritual that is known as "doing the month" (confinement) in which they spend the first 30 days after giving birth resting in bed, while the mother or mother-in-law takes care of domestic duties and childcare. Definition Für die neue Mutter kann die Geburt des Kindes eine Kaskade von intensiven und gegensätzlichen Emotionen hervorrufen, die von Aufregung und Freude bis zu Anfällen von Wut und Angst reichen, aber auch zu etwas führen können, das nicht erwartet wird, wie das postpartale Depression. [60], Postpartum depression in the DSM-5 is known as "depressive disorder with peripartum onset". Below is a link for dad's suffering from synonym: Postpartale Depression, PPD Symptome Eine Wochenbettdepression ist eine psychische Erkrankung, die bei Frauen innert der ersten Monate nach der Entbindung beginnt. Now, research shows that sad dads may be even more common than once thought" (Vann, 2011). Perinatal depression can be treated. Exogenous oxytocin has only been explored as a PPD treatment with rodents, but results are encouraging for potential application in humans. Sie betrifft Mayo Clinic is a not-for-profit organization. [88] However, there is some evidence that the use of estradiol patches might help with PPD symptoms. [106] She was a pilgrim known as "Madwoman" after having a tough labor and delivery. Wochenbettdepression (Postpartale Depression) Definition: Depressive Episode mit Beginn innerhalb der ersten 4 Wochen nach Geburt (Diagnosekriterien einer unipolaren depressiven Episode sind erfüllt) Epidemiologie: Ca. [90] The first-line anti-depressant medication of choice is sertraline, an SSRI, as very little of it passes into the breast milk and, as a result, to the child. Die postpartale Depression (PPD) ist eine Schwermut, die bei Müttern direkt nach der Geburt (postpartal) auftritt, monatelang anhalten kann und für Mutter und Kind eine hohe Gefährdung darstellt. [57][60] Violence against women is a chronic stressor, so depression may occur when someone is no longer able to respond to the violence. Hebammen die Depression lange nicht wahrnehmen bzw. But some new moms experience a more severe, long-lasting form of depression known as postpartum depression. With postpartum psychosis — a rare condition that typically develops within the first week after delivery — the signs and symptoms are severe. [2] While most women experience a brief period of worry or unhappiness after delivery, postpartum depression should be suspected when symptoms are severe and last over two weeks. After childbirth, a dramatic drop in hormones (estrogen and progesterone) in your body may contribute to postpartum depression. [70][72] For example, in Canada, Alberta is the only province with universal PPD screening. [105] Although this treatment was not described, experimental treatments began to be implemented for postpartum depression for the centuries that followed. This use of self-report may have results that underreport symptoms and thus postpartum depression rates. [96] Regarding allopregnanolone, very limited data did not indicate a risk for the infant. [13] Typically, a diagnosis of postpartum depression is considered after signs and symptoms persist for at least two weeks. While US prevalence decreased from 2004 to 2012, it did not decrease among American Indian/Alaska Native women or those with full term, low-birthweight infants. In: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSM-5. [119], The stigma of mental health - with or without support from family members and health professionals - often deters women from seeking help for their PPD. Do a depression screening that may include having you fill out a questionnaire 2. [1], Among those at risk, providing psychosocial support may be protective in preventing PPD. Postpartale Depression: Vom Vater zum Pfleger (DocCheck News) Postpartale Depression: Die Leiden der jungen Väter (DocCheck News) Klicke hier, um einen neuen Artikel im DocCheck Flexikon anzulegen. [114] When this spirit is unsatisfied and venting resentment, it causes the mother to experience frequent crying, loss of appetite, and trouble sleeping, known collectively as "sakit meroyan". [106] There was a long physical recovery period during which she started descending into "madness" and became suicidal. National Institute of Mental Health. [123], This was one of the first public and notable cases of postpartum psychosis,[122] which helped create dialogue on women's mental health after childbirth. American Psychiatric Association. Postpartum depression may lead mothers to be inconsistent with childcare. Es ist nicht ungewöhnlich, dass Frauen vorübergehende Stimmungsstörungen zu erleben oder “Blues” nach der Geburt. [51], These above factors are known to correlate with PPD. She drowned her children one by one over the course of an hour, by holding their heads under water in their family bathtub. Yogman M, et al. Sie spürte, dass mit ihr etwas nicht stimmte, magerte ab, weil sie nicht zum Kochen und Essen kam. Postpartum Support International June 2013 Page 4 DSM-IV Introduction of the Postpartum Onset Specifier Major Depressive Disorder with postpartum onset was not recognized in the DSM until the publication of the DSM-IV in 1994. There's no single cause of postpartum depression, but physical and emotional issues may play a role. [22] Postpartum depression can also occur in women who have suffered a miscarriage. Postpartale Depression: Stimmungstief nach der Geburt. Father's suffer from postpartum too. [82][83], Treatment for mild to moderate PPD includes psychological interventions or antidepressants. [90], Some studies show that hormone therapy may be effective in women with PPD, supported by the idea that the drop in estrogen and progesterone levels post-delivery contribute to depressive symptoms. 8th ed. They may not be aware of signs and symptoms of depression. Development of the 10-item Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale", "Postpartum Depression Screening: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information", "Psychosocial and psychological interventions for preventing postpartum depression", "Effect of peer support on prevention of postnatal depression among high risk women: multisite randomised controlled trial", "Traditional postpartum practices and rituals: clinical implications", "Interventions to Prevent Perinatal Depression: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement", "Most of UK doesn't provide vital perinatal mental healthcare", "Antidepressants for preventing postnatal depression", "Identification and Management of Peripartum Depression", "Does aerobic exercise reduce postpartum depressive symptoms? Lesen Sie hier, wie es zum Baby Blues kommt und wie Sie am besten damit umgehen. Häufigkeit:Prävalenz ca. Note: Mood episodes can have their onset either during pregnancy or postpartum. Postpartum depression signs and symptoms may include: Untreated, postpartum depression may last for many months or longer. [87] Social interventions include individual counseling and peer support, while psychological interventions include cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and interpersonal therapy (IPT). Make a donation. Rarely, an extreme mood disorder called postpartum psychosis also may develop after childbirth. The definition of postpartum depression (PPD)varies among medical organizations: The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) notes that perinatal depression, also known as PPD, includes major and minor depressive episodes that occur … [57] These higher rates of PPD in lesbian/bisexual mothers may reflect less social support, particularly from their families of origin and additional stress due to homophobic discrimination in society. This led to her believing that her children needed to be saved, and that by killing them, she could rescue their eternal souls. Definition: Postpartale Stimmungskrisen (von lat. Willkommen beim Verein Postpartale Depression Schweiz. Doch unerkannte Wochenbettdepressionen bergen ein grosses Risiko einer Chronifizierung der depressiven Störung oder sind gar mit einem Suizid verbunden. Postpartum depression. Andrea Yates, a former nurse, became pregnant for the first time in 1976. * Dabei werden 2-3 Abstufungen unterschieden: das Stimmungstief, auch „Baby blues“ genannt; die postpartale Depression; und teilweise auch die postpartale Psychose n. 1. [65], Postpartum psychosis is not a formal diagnosis, but is widely used to describe a psychiatric emergency that appears to occur in about 1 in a 1000 pregnancies, in which symptoms of high mood and racing thoughts (mania), depression, severe confusion, loss of inhibition, paranoia, hallucinations and delusions begin suddenly in the first two weeks after delivery; the symptoms vary and can change quickly. In diesen „Heultagen“ sind Mütter meist erschöpft, müde und leiden unter Stimmungsschwankungen. [35] The cause may be distinct in males. Women are not to blame or at fault for having perinatal depression: it is not brought on by anything a mother has or has not done. [12], Symptoms of PPD can occur any time in the first year postpartum. [70] Additionally, the American Academy of Pediatrics recommends pediatricians screen mothers for PPD at 1-month, 2-month and 4-month visits. Die Symptome können z.B. Check out these best-sellers and special offers on books and newsletters from Mayo Clinic. [103], With the 19th century came a new attitude about the relationship between female mental illness and pregnancy, childbirth, or menstruation. What is postpartum psychosis? 2016;173:1179. These may include offering structures of organized support, hygiene care, diet, rest, infant care, and breastfeeding instruction. Also called the baby blues, postpartum depression occurs after childbirth. There is no longer a distinction made between depressive episodes that occur during pregnancy or those that occur after delivery. [6] Estrogen and progesterone levels drop back to pre-pregnancy levels within 24 hours of giving birth, and that sudden change may cause it. Postpartum depression is a mental health disorder affecting as many as one in nine new mothers. ; Postpartum depression is medically considered a subset of peripartum depression. [9][10] Moreover, this mood disorder is estimated to affect 1% to 26% of new fathers. [66], Postpartum psychosis often requires hospitalization, where treatment is antipsychotic medications, mood stabilizers, and in cases of strong risk for suicide, electroconvulsive therapy. All rights reserved. Further, violence against women was defined as "any act of gender-based violence that results in, or is likely to result in, physical, sexual, or psychological harm or suffering to women". To be diagnosed with depression, symptoms must be present for at least two weeks. [101] Cesarean section rates did not affect the rates of PPD. Loss of appetite or eating much more than usual, Inability to sleep (insomnia) or sleeping too much, Reduced interest and pleasure in activities you used to enjoy, Feelings of worthlessness, shame, guilt or inadequacy, Diminished ability to think clearly, concentrate or make decisions, Thoughts of harming yourself or your baby, Make it hard for you to care for your baby, Include thoughts of harming yourself or your baby. Im anschliessenden Kapitel 3 wird zusammengefasst, welche Auswirkungen die nachgeburtliche Depression auf die kindliche Entwicklung, auf die Symptoms include feeling stressed, sad, anxious, lonely, tired or weepy. Postpartum depression: a disorder in search of a definition Arch Womens Ment Health. PPD can also negatively affect the newborn child. A single copy of these materials may be reprinted for noncommercial personal use only. a systematic review and meta-analysis", "Treatment of postpartum depression: clinical, psychological and pharmacological options", "Therapist-Supported Internet-Based Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Stress, Anxiety, and Depressive Symptoms Among Postpartum Women: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis", "Antidepressant treatment for postnatal depression", "Postpartum VTE Risk Highest Soon After Birth", "Bench-to-bedside: NIMH research leads to brexanolone, first-ever drug specifically for postpartum depression", "Press Announcements - FDA approves first treatment for post-partum depression", "FDA approves first treatment for post-partum depression", "FDA Antidepressant Drug Labels for Pregnant and Postpartum Women", "FDA Prescribing Information for Brexanolone", "Economic and Health Predictors of National Postpartum Depression Prevalence: A Systematic Review, Meta-analysis, and Meta-Regression of 291 Studies from 56 Countries", "Trends in Postpartum Depressive Symptoms - 27 States, 2004, 2008, and 2012", "Women and hysteria in the history of mental health", "Shedding More Light on Postpartum Depression – PR News", 10.1002/1520-6696(196701)3:1<99::AID-JHBS2300030129>3.0.CO;2-2, "The Project Gutenberg eBook of The Yellow Wallpaper, by Charlotte Perkins Gilman", "Perinatal depression: a review of US legislation and law", "Continuing education module: postpartum maternal health care in the United States: a critical review", "Depression during and after pregnancy fact sheet", Other specified feeding or eating disorder, Pruritic urticarial papules and plaques of pregnancy (PUPPP), Childbirth-related posttraumatic stress disorder,, Pathology of pregnancy, childbirth and the puerperium, Wikipedia medicine articles ready to translate, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Persistent sadness, anxiousness or "empty" mood, Frustration, irritability, restlessness, anger, Feeling inadequate in taking care of the baby, Lack of interest or pleasure in usual activities, Diminished ability to make decisions and think clearly, Fear that you can not care for the baby or fear of the baby, Worry about harming self, baby, or partner, A personal or family history of depression, Stressful life events experienced during pregnancy, Poor marital relationship or single marital status, A lack of strong emotional support from spouse, partner, family, or friends, Administration of labor-inducing medication synthetic, Feelings of sadness, emptiness, or hopelessness, nearly every day, for most of the day or the observation of a depressed mood made by others, Loss of interest or pleasure in activities, Loss of concentration or increased indecisiveness, Recurrent thoughts of death, with or without plans of suicide, This page was last edited on 28 March 2021, at 07:03. Recent findings have also identified blunted activity in anterior cingulate cortex, striatum, orbitofrontal cortex, and insula in mothers with PPD when viewing images of their own infants. Um die postpartale Depression als Sonderform in das Krankheitsbild der Depression einzubetten bzw. [100] However, between the nations, a predictor for higher postpartum depression rates was found to be wealth disparities within the nations. [99], Among one of the most common sources of morbidity associated with childbirth, postpartum depression is a major global public health issue. Postpartum depression: A form of severe depression after delivery that interferes with daily functioning and requires treatment. Definition einer postpartalen Depression. [101], Even with the variety of studies, it is difficult to find the exact rate as approximately 60% of US women are not diagnosed and of those diagnosed approximately 50% are not treated for PPD. © 1998-2021 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research (MFMER). [2] Tentative evidence supports the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). [98], As of 2013 it is unclear if acupuncture, massage, bright lights, or taking omega-3 fatty acids are useful. Accessed June 7, 2018. The decrease of a vital function such as respiration. Pediatrics. Traditional cultures around the world prioritize organized support during postpartum care to ensure the mother's mental and physical health, wellbeing, and recovery. Postpartum depression isn't a character flaw or a weakness. Der Baby Blues beginnt einige Tage nach der Geburt. "Mayo," "Mayo Clinic," "," "Mayo Clinic Healthy Living," and the triple-shield Mayo Clinic logo are trademarks of Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Weiterhin wurden Lehrbücher, Monografien und Dissertationen zur Informationssammlung ... 1.2.1 Definition des Traumas und der posttraumatischen Belastungsstörung Ein Trauma ist ein Erlebnis, das ein Individuum nicht adäquat verarbeiten kann. [112], Malay culture holds a belief in Hantu Meroyan; a spirit that resides in the placenta and amniotic fluid. If you have postpartum depression, prompt treatment can help you manage your symptoms and help you bond with your baby. [66] Women who have been hospitalized for a psychiatric condition immediately after delivery are at a much higher risk of suicide during the first year after delivery.[69]. Häufigkeit. Meaning of postpartum depression. Mayo Clinic Proceedings. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, a standardized self-reported questionnaire, may be used to identify women who have postpartum depression. [97], Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) has shown efficacy in women with severe PPD that have either failed multiple trials of medication-based treatment or cannot tolerate the available antidepressants. As the child grows older, postpartum depression can lead to the child experiencing irregularities in cognitive processes, behaviors, and emotions. It is characterized by symptoms that include sadness, irritability, difficulty bonding with your baby, insomnia, and loss of appetite. [37][38] Many mothers are unable to get the rest they need to fully recover from giving birth. [73] If the new mother scores 13 or more, she likely has PPD and further assessment should follow. [61] It is important to note that the research reviewed only looked at violence experienced by women from male perpetrators, but did not consider violence inflicted on men or women by women. Postpartale Angstzustände können als eigenständige Kategorie gesehen werden, da diverse Angststörungen nicht zwangsläufig eine Depression bedeuten. Arlington, Va.: American Psychiatric Association; 2013. "[77], Across different cultures, traditional rituals for postpartum care may be preventative for PPD, but are more effective when the support is welcomed by the mother. The DSM-5 outlines the following criterion to make a diagnosis of depression. [25], In rare cases, or about 1 to 2 per 1,000, the postpartum depression appears as postpartum psychosis. These problems can have a cyclical effect, meaning that they can further agitate the mother's postpartum depression and can even lead to the mother further developing postpartum depression. Don't wait and hope for improvement. Baby blues typically begin within the first two to three days after delivery, and may last for up to two weeks.