Hong Kong's political and judicial systems may be integrated with China's at that time, or the territory may continue to be administered separately. Editor's Note: This article has been updated to reflect the demands of the protesters. Mao Zedong is replaced by the more moderate Deng Xiaoping, who implements a policy of âopening and reform.â Britain, looking ahead to the end of its 99-year lease on the New Territories, approaches Deng about continuing its administration. Hong Kong emerges as an âAsian Tigerâ- an international financial center. The marches continue every July, providing an annual reminder of citizensâ demands for universal suffrage, freedom of speech protections and democratic rule. They havenât gotten their demands yetâbut the protests continue unabated. Hong Kongâs economy takes off as a manufacturing hub and the standard of living climbs. A rash of protests and acts of civil disobedience follow. British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher and Chinaâs Premier Zhao Ziyang sign the Joint Declaration on the future of Hong Kong. Hong Kongâs population surges from 600,000 in 1945 to 2.5 million in 1956.â¯. Hong Kong has been wracked by a recent series of protests in support of self-determination for its citizens. Demonstrators change tactics, conducting surprise protests at government buildings and in far-flung parts of the New Territories. Opium addiction becomes a serious problem for China. Under the terms of the treaty, China would regain control of its leased lands on July 1, 1997. All rights reserved. Sign up for more inspiring photos, stories, and special offers from National Geographic. Mary Anning and her most important dinosaur finds went unsung, but her legacy now draws travelers to southwest England. Hong Kong moves forward with the reforms, but China plans to dismantle them once it takes the city back. Big winter snows in the North could be fueled by Arctic sea ice loss, 'Lost golden city of Luxor' discovered by archaeologists in Egypt, How the first pitch became baseball's Opening Day tradition, How Queen Victoria remade the British monarchy, Why the St. Vincent volcano has such a deadly reputation, Europe to review Johnson & Johnsonâs vaccine over reports of rare blood clots. Hong Kong Disneyland (Chinese: é¦æ¸¯è¿ªå£«å°¼æ¨å) (also known as HK Disneyland or HKDL) is a theme park located on reclaimed land in Penny's Bay, Lantau Island.It is located inside the Hong Kong Disneyland Resort and it is owned and managed by Hong Kong International Theme Parks.It is the largest theme park in Hong Kong, followed by Ocean Park Hong Kong. The unrest leads to a sense of social cohesion in an increasingly multicultural society. Defeat came at a high cost: In 1842, China agreed to cede the island of Hong Kong to the British in perpetuity through the Treaty of Nanjing. The First Opium War that follows leaves 520 British casualties and up to 20,000 Chinese casualties. The âspecial statusâ of this powerful global city is the result of two centuries of growth, turmoil, and change. However, Hong Kong is protected from out-and-out war by its status as a British colony. The Chinese legislature rules out open elections in Hong Kong, saying that it will only allow candidates approved by Beijing to run for its top political position. However, Hong Kong residents cannot elect their own leaders; rather, a chief executive is elected by a 1,200-member election committee. A global firm of engineering consultants, designers, development planners & project managers. These “ecological zombies” will eat almost anything and can live almost anywhere. The current composition of Hong Kongâs 70-seat Legislative Council is 40 Geographic Constituency legislators elected directly by voters, albeit according to a proportional representation system. Il nome "Hong Kong" è una rappresentazione fonetica approssimativa della pronuncia della parlata cantonese o il nome Hakka "é¦æ¸¯", che significa "porto profumato". Hong Kong officially reverts to Chinese rule after more than 150 years of British control. It galvanizes pro-democracy support in the city, and more candidates in favor of democratic rule run in the next election. It was the end of an era: In July 1997, as the flag of the United Kingdom was lowered over Hong Kong, the prosperous colony was returned to China after over 150 years of British rule. New study offers intriguing evidence, A mysterious neurological disease is afflicting endangered Florida panthers, Endangered trout may soon return to the concrete Los Angeles River, In Spain, sanctuaries give forever homes to farmed animals, Elephants return to conflict-ridden national park, Many mammals are contagious yawners—this might be why, Once-rare Arctic lightning is now more frequent—and may reshape the region, As halibut decline, Alaska Native fishers square off against industrial fleets, Hazardous spill in Florida highlights environmental threat decades in the making. Hong Kong is a Special Administrative Region of the Peopleâs Republic of China. Volcano tourism is booming, but is it too risky? Kowloon Bay is a major industrial and financial area, and was home to Hong Kong's airport until a new facility was built in 1998. Starting in 2014, elections were conducted using a list of candidates vetted by Beijing. Remnants from the space rock may help explain how often these cosmic explosions occur—and the threat they pose to Earth. The history of the Hong Kong Police originates in 1841, when the Hong Kong Police Force (HKPF) was officially established by the British colonial government, the same year that the British had settled in Hong Kong.While changes have been implemented throughout the People's Republic of China (PRC) since the transfer of sovereignty in 1997, the Hong Kong Police Force (formerly the Royal Hong â¦ Hong Kong has been wracked by a recent series of protests in support of self-determination for its citizens. Copyright © 1996-2015 National Geographic SocietyCopyright © 2015-2021 National Geographic Partners, LLC. Thus, an increasing number of Hong Kong students choose to study abroad for higher education . It declares that China will resume control of Hong Kong on July 1, 1997. Up to 30,000 Chinese are killed or wounded; there are just 2,900 Western casualties. How Hong Kongâs complex history explains its current crisis with China. As a result, the government undertakes ambitious social reforms, tackling official corruption and increasing educational opportunities. Tens of thousands of people march in a pro-democracy rally. Demonstrations and battles between police and pro-democracy protesters break out throughout Hong Kong. The Treaty of Nanjing is signed by China and Britain, ceding the island of Hong Kong to Britain permanently. As Japanese forces close in on Hong Kong after the start of the Sino-Japanese War, thousands of people from mainland China flee to the city. I had two bites at the Hong Kong cherry - National Service 1950-52 and in the movie business 1977- 2002, so I recognize many of your locations. Excellent album. Why do male gorillas beat their chests? Battle to control America’s ‘most destructive’ species: feral pigs. The sun had finally set on one of the wealthiest modern outposts of the British Empire. The massacre fuels worries about how China will govern in Hong Kong, and anti-Communist sentiments grow. Does everyone need to wear a mask outside? All rights reserved, Convention for the Extension of Hong Kong Territory, expiration of China’s agreement to honor Hong Kong’s Basic Law. Where to find warrior queens, fairies, and castles in Scotland. Should cities start banning them? During occupation, Hong Kongâs population shrinks from 1.6 million to 600,000. Prima del 1842, il nome si riferiva a una piccola insenatura - ora conosciuta come porto di Aberdeen o é¦æ¸¯ä» hoeng 1 gong 2 zai 2 "Piccola Hong Kong" - tra l'isola di Aberdeen e il lato sud dell'isola di Hong Kong. Protesters take over the airport and face police at government buildings and in tourist and shopping districts. The small island of Hong Kong is a backwater fishing community ruled by China. Japanese bombs drop in Hong Kong territory. Parasites are going extinct. Home to over seven million people, Hong Kong teems with life. Demonstrators make demands: Withdraw the extradition bill, conduct an inquiry into police brutality, stop characterizing the protests as âriots,â release those arrested, and provide more democratic freedoms. Unauthorized use is prohibited. The forgotten fossil hunter who transformed Britain’s Jurassic Coast. The war broke out after Qing-dynasty China attempted to crack down an illegal opium trade that led to widespread addiction in China. From a British colony to part of Beijingâs âone country, two systemsâ policy, Hong Kongâ¦ history: several previous (governance documents while under British authority); latest drafted April 1988 to February 1989, approved March 1990, effective 1 July 1997 (Basic Law of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China serves as the constitution); note - since 1990, China's National People's Congress has â¦ Here's why we need to save them. Constitution. Waste left over from the coffee-making process can jolt destroyed forests back to life. But was it the beginning of lasting autonomy for Hong Kong? Volcano tourism is booming, but is it too risky? The Second Opium War between the United Kingdom, the French Empire, and China takes place. Massive waves of immigrants from mainland China begin to arrive in Hong Kong. Unauthorized use is prohibited. The first elections are held, producing record turnout despite torrential rains. Hundreds are arrested and China threatens to crack down. Parasites are going extinct. Terrified Hong Kong residents avoid public places at the height of the epidemic, and the government is criticized for its slow response. A Shanghai-born businessman named Tung Chee-hwa is chosen to rule the new Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. Here are 25 powerful moments from Hong Kongâs long history: Copyright Â© 1996-2015 National Geographic SocietyCopyright Â© 2015-2021 National Geographic Partners, LLC. 430,000 years ago a meteor exploded over Antarctica, leaving clues in the debris. At the end of the war, British and French troops lay waste to Beijingâs Summer Palaces. British merchants trade illegally smuggled opium from India for Chinese goods such as tea, silks and porcelain, setting the stage for a vicious trade dispute. The handover still has another phase ahead: the expiration of China’s agreement to honor Hong Kong’s Basic Law. Does everyone need to wear a mask outside? The final treaty, the 1898 Convention for the Extension of Hong Kong Territory, leased the New Territories to Britain for 99 years. Over the next 56 years, it will lose control over all three main regions of Hong Kong. Experts weigh in. For weeks, it has also roiled with pro-democracy protests as millions take to the streets to demand political self-determination and personal autonomy. About half a million people march to protest an attempt to introduce Article 23, a national security âanti-subversionâ law that critics feared would curtail free speech. All rights reserved. China requires that its approval must be obtained for any changes to Hong Kong election laws, effectively giving it veto power over any moves towards democracy. China attempts to suppress Britainâs opium trade by destroying the smuggled opium and punishing traffickers. So much of the old city has gone that even shots from the 70's and 80's seem like ancient history. Why we need booster shots against variants to help end the pandemic, This U.S. national park has the world’s longest cave system. Critics claim the bill threatens Hong Kongâs independence and that extradition could be used to silence Chinaâs critics. Up to 100,000 Chinese found refuge in Hong Kong after the Communist Party took power. He is criticized for his handling of the Asian financial crisis and his obedience to Beijing. Sign up for more inspiring photos, stories, and special offers from National Geographic. It is a landslide for pro-democracy candidates, who win more than 65 percent of the vote. Should cities start banning them? Please be respectful of copyright. All rights reserved. In Hong Kong, more than 1 million people protest the massacre of pro-democracy demonstrators in Beijingâs Tiananmen Square. The forgotten fossil hunter who transformed Britainâs Jurassic Coast. Students strike, citizens participate in huge pro-democracy rallies, and demonstrators occupy the city center for weeks. Copyright © 1996-2015 National Geographic Society, Copyright © 2015-2021 National Geographic Partners, LLC. That and other Chinese policies, like a recent attempt to allow extradition to the mainland, have led to mass protests, strained British-Chinese diplomatic relations, and fueled increasing concerns that China is stifling public dissent, interfering in local politics, and eroding human rights in Hong Kong. The movement fails, and many of the leaders, who were students, are jailed. But because of the cityâs new election structure under Chinese rule, pro-democracy candidates donât gain a majority in the legislature. By 1839, China is home to 10 million opium smokers and up to 2 million addicts. Britain is awarded a rent-free, 99-year lease on the New Territories. The most recent series of demonstrations initially arose from protests against a controversial bill that would allow extradition to mainland China. Millions of people march in the peaceful demonstrations that follow. Capitalist Hong Kong soon experienced an economic boom, becoming home to a multicultural, international community. Protesters clash with police in Hong Kong in July 2019. Gas heat and stoves are warming the climate. So do international trade and Western-style schools, banks and businesses. Illustration by Adolfo Arranz, National Geographic, Map by Soren Walljasper, National Geographic. Today, Kowloon Bay has been almost entirely reclaimed from the sea. New study offers intriguing evidence, A mysterious neurological disease is afflicting endangered Florida panthers, Endangered trout may soon return to the concrete Los Angeles River, In Spain, sanctuaries give forever homes to farmed animals, Elephants return to conflict-ridden national park, Many mammals are contagious yawnersâthis might be why, Once-rare Arctic lightning is now more frequentâand may reshape the region, As halibut decline, Alaska Native fishers square off against industrial fleets, Hazardous spill in Florida highlights environmental threat decades in the making. Starting in the late 1970s, the U.K. and China began to discuss Hong Kong’s future. China pledges to grant Hong Kong a âhigh degree of autonomyâ and that Hong Kong would move toward direct elections by 2007. On the mainland, the Chinese Revolution is won by the Communists under leader Mao Zedong. The bill is soon withdrawn, but the proposed law faces international criticism and is seen as evidence of Chinaâs desire to restrict freedoms in Hong Kong. Battle to control Americaâs âmost destructiveâ species: feral pigs. Britain resumes control over the civil government. Chinese and Hong Kong officials call the clashes a âriot.â Protesters demand they retract those claims. Hong Kong democracy leaders found guilty over peaceful 2019 protest Seven figures including Martin Lee and media tycoon Jimmy Lai convicted over unauthorised march Published: 1 Apr 2021 Trust in Beijingâs commitment to democracy in Hong Kong plummets, and half a million people engage in pro-democracy protests in July. In Hong Kong, the supply of places for higher education falls short of demand. Why do male gorillas beat their chests? It concludes with the Convention of Peking, which cedes the Kowloon Peninsula and Stonecutters Island to Britain. How this more contagious virus variant became dominant in the U.S. Big winter snows in the North could be fueled by Arctic sea ice loss, 'Lost golden city of Luxor' discovered by archaeologists in Egypt, How the first pitch became baseball's Opening Day tradition, How Queen Victoria remade the British monarchy, Why the St. Vincent volcano has such a deadly reputation, Europe to review Johnson & Johnson’s vaccine over reports of rare blood clots. How this more contagious virus variant became dominant in the U.S. Will China continue to recognize Hong Kong’s autonomy after then? In 1984, British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher and China’s premier Zhao Ziyang signed the Sino-British Joint Declaration, agreeing that China would give Hong Kong some political and social autonomy through a “one country, two systems” policy for a 50-year-period. Theyâre not the first: The history of Hong Kong is one of rapid growth, political turmoil, and continual demands for change. Please be respectful of copyright. Beijing officials are furious, and negotiations fall apart. But unrest grows due to income inequality and poor working conditions among the surging population. Remnants from the space rock may help explain how often these cosmic explosions occurâand the threat they pose to Earth. Hong Kong citizens experience a growing sense of uncertaintyâand wonder why they werenât included in the negotiations.